Tag Archives: “Dovid Katz”




Come visit Lithuania & neighboring EU countries!

DH editor in neo-nazi & far-right imagination

Can eminent Western folks (& Jewish organization heads) be seduced by state medals, junkets & photo-ops to unwittingly compromise historic truth of the Holocaust & the interests of the remnant Jewish communities of Eastern Europe?


We support Ukraine!

27 June 2024

OPINION: Ukraine Needs Help from the “Red-Brown Commission” Like a Hole in the Head

21 & 23 June 2024


Defending History’s Report Brings News to International Attention


17 June 2024

Building Sheets Down, Scaffolding Removed, Builders’ Barriers are “Last Stage” for “Noreika section” of National Library of Sciences Facade

Latest images (17 June 2024) from the cleaned facade that Lithuania’s friends hope will remain morally clean…

5 June 2024

A splendid opportunity presents itself to the leaders of Vilnius and Lithuania:

“Please just announce that the Noreika plaque, glorifying a brutal Holocaust collaborator, will NOT reappear on the facade of the central Vilnius Library of the Academy of Sciences after completion of the building’s renovations. It causes so much pain to the families of Holocaust survivors, and so much unnecessary damage to Lithuania’s status. Time to throw systemic antisemitism and state glorification of Holocaust collaborators into the junkyard of the last century’s horrors. And move onward together in the spirit of the European Union, NATO, and the free world.”

Photo at right: 19 May 2024 by DH. June 3rd update: Scaffolding removed. Will the authorities now explicitly keep the plaque off? Or, will the circus of crowds coming to re-affix the plaque  glorifying a brutal Holocaust collaborator come back to town this summer (as was the case five years ago, in 2019)?

The plaque was removed a year ago in the run-up to July’s NATO conference (pretext: “renovations of the facade”). The builders’ sheets  have finally come down, but the scaffolding is still up. When the plaque was removed for renovations, Delfi.lt reported one year ago that  the director of the National Library of Sciences, whose Noreika facade has so damaged Lithuania’s standing, gave the plaque to a far-right, pro-fascist youth group “for safekeeping” and that “the sign will be put back when the renovation works are completed.”

America’s ambassador to Lithuania, H.E. Cara McDonald, mentioned Noreika by name in her historic Jan. 2024 statement that included the words: “I will continue to speak out strongly against the glorification of individuals who are known and documented to have participated in the Holocaust. This is part of the definition of antisemitism.”

20 May 2024

Video: Rabbi S. J. Feffer, descendant of Gaon of Vilna and long-time provider of Jewish festivals to city’s Jewish community, speaks out passionately against plans to plonk a museum & memorial complex in the heart of the Old Vilna Jewish Cemetery.


10 May 2024

Five Minutes & Six Seconds:

The Satanic Verses of Sheduva, Lithuania?

Our take:

Shame on the directors, donors, and staff of the “Museum of the Lost Shtetl” that has just had the five minute and six second  trailer to Saulius Beržinis’s classic Holocaust documentary on Sheduva removed from Youtube:

If this really is some kind of “copyright dispute” the Museum of the Lost Shtetl will rapidly re-post the trailer on Youtube with its own proposed copyright data. Or is this a case of the museum wanting to bury forever from the public domain these moments from the documentary that it itself commissioned — and with it, the truth about the Holocaust and the memories of its last witnesses in town?

The five minute trailer on Yom HaShoah.  The saga.  Sheduva in Holocaust history over the last few years. A foreign journalist’s report withdrawn, allegedly after threats.

6 May / Yom HaShoah 2024:

Please spend five minutes and six seconds watching the youtube trailer for Saulius Beržinis’s blocked film

Is Sheduva’s “Museum of the Lost Shtetl” really blocking Beržinis’s remarkable documentary film (that it itself commissioned)?

For lavish replacement, famous Hollywood director is brought in. But will she now publicly support Beržinis’s film also being readily available online?

Text of a foreign journalist’s major-media article withdrawn “allegedly after threats”

25 years ago, Elena Rimdžiūtė, a Christian Lithuanian townswoman, told us, in Litvak Yiddish, what happened during the Holocaust in her town while remembering her murdered neighbors by singing their beloved Yiddish folksongs (translation of the excerpt in youtube ‘description box’). Entire interview here.

26 April  2024

Rwanda Genocide: Instrumentalized by “Genocide Center”?

22 April 2024

Orthodox Jewry Launches Protests against Latest Incarnation of “Soviet Junk in Heart of Old Vilna Jewish Cemetery”

Could the “plot line out of a horror movie” be true? Yet another drive to obtain “Orthodox permission” for converting a Soviet dump in the middle of Lithuania’s oldest, greatest, Jewish cemetery to a modern building with toilets and lights and masses of visitors to museum-grade exhibits? The American Jewish Committee’s point man again “coming to the rescue” by allegedly offering a “substantial sum” to the Conference of European Rabbis (CER), previously a staunch opponent of desecration, in return for stitching it all up via a new commission to which they would appoint Orthodox members who would merrily sign on? With money from where? From the “Good Will Foundation” restitution funds deriving from the religious property of the murdered Jews of pre-Holocaust Lithuania. The AJC man will no doubt get even more medals and shmontzes. Ah, but then the power of truth shows itself  again in a way that revealed the whole of it for history. One member of the commission dissents with the deepest of honesty, courage and integrity, via eloquent documents for the records of history.

See the saga of the cemetery since 2015. Of the new commission since 2023 (its members).  Of the AJC’s exploits in Lithuania (do American donors know?). Of the Good Will Foundation. Of one single righteous voice of public dissent among the commission members. Of four Litvak heads of yeshiva immediately protesting the new plans. Public statements by Ruta Bloshtein, Julius Norwilla and Rabbi Elchonon Baron. The commission minutes “out of George Orwell”. What next?

15 April 2024

Vilnius Jewish Community invites people of all faiths and backgrounds to Rabbi Samuel Jacob Feffer’s Open & Free Passover Seyder, celebrating the Jewish festival of freedom

this Monday, 22 April, 9 PM to late, at the

Narutis Hotel, Pilies g. 24 (ground floor, hall at end of corridor)

Everyone is welcome! Admission free! No tickets required! More information at Facebook page of the Vilnius Jewish Community . . .

April 2024

Greetings — from ‘Lithuania’s Liveliest Cemetery’

Did “Conference of European Rabbis” (CER) reverse a long-held principled position after alleged financial incentive from gov. sponsored ‘Good Will Foundation’ (GWF) in latest betrayal of Lithuanian Jewry by the American Jewish Committee’s (AJC) point man who allegedly arranged the deal? He  is also the nonrotating co-chair of GWF controlling tens of millions meant for Lithuanian Jewry.


Do the leaders and supporters of the AJC know of its unethical and destructive activities in Lithuania over many years? How AJC’s Andrew Baker responds to a Lithuanian Jew who dares write in protest?

On the future of the Old Vilna Jewish Cemetery: To date, just  one member of latest “international commission” on the cemetery stood up with integrity for the cemetery’s dignity, and could not be swayed by junkets, banquets, photo-ops, translations, medals and trinkets. His statements for history on the process and on the content. Who are the other members? Will any of them — especially the “religious” Jewish representatives —  ever speak out?

 Real Lithuanian tradition rabbis have spoken out with simple integrity. Statement of four yeshiva heads, and of Rabbi Elchonon Baron.


Tale of Two Visions — for Lithuania’s most sacred Jewish site, the Old Vilna Cemetery, where many thousands still lie buried



March 2024

Welcoming Springtime in Vilnius with Ever More Repairs at Library of Sciences


Ever more antics to avoid having to permanently remove plaque glorifying the Nazi collaborator (or just to delay announcing any decision)? National Library of Sciences in central Vilnius on the eve of the Ides of March 2024. Defending History photos by William Adan Pahl.

Critics ask: Is it all to avoid making the bold decision to leave the plaque and bas relief of Noreika away from the building’s facade and right on the junkpile of Hitlerist paraphernalia — where it justly belongs?

“These repairs, approaching the one-year mark, are the Vilnius answer to Chris Christie’s Washington Bridge repair scheme”…

Plaque was temporarily removed on eve of last July’s successful NATO conference (according to mainstream media, it was given to far-right hate group Pro Patria for “safekeeping”). New American ambassador speaks out with unambiguous moral clarity at the start of 2024. Nu? What keeps the president, prime minister and mayor of Vilnius from proudly announcing that just like Soviet junk, public space shrines to Holocaust criminals have no place in the  public space of EU and NATO capital cities. One mayor once took down its predecessor plaque (alas, very temporarily). On Vilnius’s 700th last year, Defending History assured our readers that Gediminas, creator of Europe’s first truly from-the-start multicultural capital, was crying out from the grave.

Meanwhile, hated relics of Soviets’ architectural (and human) barbarism are all correctly coming down, with the one exception of the one on the Old Vilna Jewish Cemetery, where demolition would entail the “danger” of restoring Lithuania’s most storied Jewish cemetery in the onetime Jerusalem of Lithuania.

It pays to defend history: success stories

Our authors: Who has written for DH during its first decade and a half?

Our survivors’ Yiddish oral history archive reaches 670+ videos

DH editor in the neo-nazi, far right & fellow traveler imagination: cartoons, photoshops and death threats

Can well-meaning distinguished foreigners become UJIs (“useful Jewish idiots”) who unwittingly help cover for East European Holocaust obfuscation and revisionism when showered with honors?

February 2024

America’s new ambassador in Vilnius, HE Kara McDonald, makes a dramatic entrance that will go down in history, citing glorified Holocaust perpetrators Krikštaponis and Noreika by name, in first major interview:

“I will continue to speak out strongly against the glorification of individuals who are known and documented to have participated in the Holocaust. This is part of the definition of antisemitism.”

New US ambassador in Vilnius HE Kara McDonald


AMBASSADOR MCDONALD’S FIRST MAJOR CHALLENGE: Hope rising that the ambassador can succeed to persuade authorities to truly join West’s sensibilities in their imminent decision on…

To restore or not to restore a city-center plaque glorifying a brutal Holocaust collaborator? Noreika or no Noreika?

Plaque was taken down “for repairs” before last July’s NATO conference. Choice rich in symbolism confronts nation’s leaders as huge white builders’ sheet continues to cover up the indecision…

DefendingHistory.com photo by William Adan Pahl


Doesn’t the proud 1000 year history of Lithuania deserve better than this in the heart of Vilnius?

Can a handful of antisemitic, ultranationalist, Holocaust-revising elites continue to stymie Lithuania’s progress?

The day will come, when the nation’s educators, journalists, parliamentarians and cultural leaders will appreciate who were the true friends of Lithuania in the 2020s. . .

Coming back? Plaque with bas relief of the Holocaust collaborator. Photo: DefendingHistory.com.

For a decade and a half, the Defending History community has been calling for an end to glorification of Holocaust perpetrators. See DH’s sections Perpetrators Glorified; J. Noreika. The far-right’s argumentation, that “Double Genocide” means that all perpetrators can also be heroes has been propagated for a quarter century by the “Red-Brown” Commission. It’s best-known iteration is on video, concerning the state’s attempts to prosecute anti-Nazi resistance heroes Fania Yocheles Brantosvsky, Rachel Margolis, Joseph Melamed, and others; official apologies to their families remain a vital issue. Defending History is proud to have brought these travesties to the world’s attention, and to have supported to the hilt the last survivors. Our community is certain that this constitutes a great service to the future of the delightful, democratic EU/NATO state of Lithuania, whose valiant people deserve much better than their taxes going to glorify Holocaust killers, or to rewrite history in the spirit of the far-far right’s ultranationalism, racism and antisemitism.

Mark Blumberg on the Noreika plaque merry-go-round

Jan. 2024

Defending History’s 2024

Person of the Year

Meet our Persons of the Year over the past decade

Dec. 2023

We wish all our readers

Happy Holidays, Happy Chanukah, Happy Christmas, Happy New Year 2024!

The Defending History community’s annual new year’s meditation

Dec. 2023

Grand opportunity knocks: Don’t restore the Vilnius plaque glorifying Holocaust collaborator J. Noreika!

Before New Year’s Eve rings out the 700th anniversary year of Vilnius: Defending History renews call for rapid removal of all of Vilnius’s shrines, plaques, statues, street names and museum exhibits glorifying Holocaust collaborators (including the LAF neighbor-killers of the First Week of the Lithuanian Holocaust)

B’nai B’rith Australia & New Zealand award: “DefendingHistory.com stands as the pre-eminent record of historic truth in the face of well funded state efforts to rewrite history

Nov.-Dec. 2023

Vilnius’s Ruta Bloshtein begs Orthodox Jews appointed to commission on Old Vilna Cemetery to stand up to ‘directed conclusion’ — a fancy restored 1970s Soviet building in the cemetery’s center. Rabbi Elchonon Baron calls latest project for cemetery destruction ‘despicable’. Julius Norwilla issues a final appeal to all members of the commission. Four Top Lithuanian-heritage heads of yeshiva issue clear rabbinic edict. Rabbi Baron issues another. Latest from ‘Working Group’ is ‘right out of Orwell’

Please write to members of the “Working Group” on the moral imperative of removing the huge Soviet ruin and lovingly restoring Vilna’s grand Old Jewish Cemetery with its many magnificent stone structures

“History will hold to account each and every member of the Working Group, including addiction to junkets, photo ops, translations, grants, honors and glories, for enabling the cruel humiliation of the graves of tens of thousands of Jewish citizens of Vilna over half a millennium whose cemetery has no true local descendant-defenders because of something called the Holocaust. Who knows, more of the Working Group will end up with classy state medals too. But their names will remain in the accurate history until the end of days.” 

“Cemetery restoration” planned for one of Lithuania’s most sacred Jewish sites?

The frightening imagined image that so disgusts antisemites in town: the idea that A Cemetery Is A Cemetery, that the Old Vilna Jewish Cemetery is the Old Vilna Jewish Cemetery, not a convention or memorial center, not a museum or fun & recreation park…

What would be a magnificent world attraction for a European city — a restored medieval Jewish cemetery reflecting a grand history — seems to elicit deep, primal ultranationalist and antisemitic panic in Vilnius. Time for the prime minister to step in again?

Were allegedly compromised groups possibly manipulated to provide “Jewish cover” for de facto cemetery destruction? Focus on AJC, CPJCE, LJC. Previous steadfastness of Conference of European Rabbis (CER) now unclear as “clear new statement” awaited. Follow the dramatic saga in Defending History.

Julius Norwilla explains that the “Working Group” members may not know that other hated Soviet buildings have rapidly had their “landmark status” removed to enable demolition. But the one in the Jewish cemetery…?

QUESTION for the Working Group members: Would any of this be happening to a half-millennium old Christian or Lithuanian national cemetery where many thousands still lie buried?

QUESTION for the planet’s Litvak rabbis and Litvak leaders: Who will be among the First Ten to publicly say something along the lines of “Sorry, guys, but the middle of the Old Vilna Jewish Cemetery is just no place for a museum or other renovated Soviet monstrosity. A cemetery of any people is for those buried there, to lie in peace in the plots purchased freehold by their relatives, with nothing but restored gravestones on top. Not just Jewish law, it’s part of human rights of all people, dear khévre.”


☰ Who will be the second? ☰

Autumn 2023

Roland Binet: On the Unvarnished, Unedited Holocaust Art of David Olère

‘It Pays to Defend History’: Yad Vashem’s new chairman, Dani Dayan, gives watershed speech at Lithuania’s parliament

Emily Tamkin’s JTA report on Vilnius’s twin anniversaries: 700 years since city’s founding, 80 since end of the Vilna Ghetto

Pinchos Fridberg’s latest reflections

B’nai B’rith honors Lithuanian filmmaker

Lev Golinkin (in the Forward) on more Nazi-honorinng monuments in America

New books for autumn 2023

August 2023

B’nai B’rith Australia & New Zealand Honors Saulius Beržinis, Lithuanian Film Maker, Bold Fighter for Historic Truth of the Holocaust


B’nai B’rith Australia & New Zealand issues press release; on J-Wire; archived

Summer 2023

Lithuania’s Famed Documentary Film Maker Saulius Beržinis, Pioneer Truth Teller on Holocaust in the Baltics, Under Multipronged Assault

Feelings mount on alleged “gang-up” by  Sheduva Shtetl Museum, its executive director in Brussels, the South African billionaire in Zurich, and swish lawyers in Vilnius. “Kosher” Hollywood master is brought in to produce an uncontroversial replacement film.

“Forbidden” scenes in the film Petrified Time have become known informally as The Satanic Verses


For a decade and a half, Defending History has been proud to stand with the inspirational heroes of modern Lithuania: the bold truth tellers of history (of all personal backgrounds). In summer 2023, documentary film maker Saulius Beržinis, after near-miraculously filming the last witnesses to the Holocaust in Sheduva (Šeduva), finds that powerful forces (including a Brussels macher, a Zurich billionaire, various officials, and Vilnius’s most ellexist law firm) all stacked up to prevent these ‘satanic verses’ of the film entering the public domain of Western civilization. Defending History intends to ensure that the Sheduva truth, a microcosm of the East European Holocaust, is not suppressed — museum or no museum. And that master documentarian Saulius Beržinis is acclaimed for his achievements rather than be subjected to strongmen-commanded, billionaire-financed campaigns of destruction actuated via fancy law firms. A major Hollywood documentary master has been brought in to do a replacement film that will presumably not ruffle the local, national or regional feathers.

Latest updates on

‘The Satanic Verses of Lost Shtetl Sheduva’

16 June 2023


Lithuanian cartoonist Voluvak on whether in the internet age film footage of real significance for the historic record of Western civilization can be eaten up (“catch and kill”) before ever seeing the wider light of day.

May 2023

Full translation of public antisemitic proclamation by Lithuanian parliamentarian Žemaitaitis; Will he now resign?

Mark Blumberg on new Noreika shrine circus: down for NATO conference (“for repairs”) & back up again when folks leave town?

With all Soviet monuments (rightfully) knocked down in Vilnius, will they make a single exception for the one in the Old Vilna Jewish Cemetery?

Will the French Embassy in Vilnius finally deal with the “private French bookshop” (in the heart of the French Embassy compound) that has for years featured in the center of its prominent Old Town show window far-right works intent on glorification of local Holocaust collaborators?

April-July 2023

Vilnius Celebrates its 700th Birthday: Time to Take Down the City-Center, State-Financed, Public-Space Monuments that Glorify Local Holocaust Collaborators

Some of the state-sponsored public-space shrines to local Holocaust collaboration in Vilnius in 2023, year of the city’s 700 years celebrations. Top: Vilnius street offensively named for the most tragic day in Lithuanian Jewish history: outbreak of mass murder of helpless neighbors across the land (the Soviets were fleeing the Nazi invasion, not the local Jew-killers). Montage: DefendingHistory.com

Meanwhile, an antisemitic commemorative envelope (featuring “numerous crowds of Kaunas Jews” allegedly greeting the Red Army in Kaunas during World War II) “updated” for this year’s celebration of Vilnius’s 700th birthday, purchased in Vilnius Old Town’s central tourist souvenir district (Pilies St.) on Easter Sunday, 9 April 2023:

See more samples of the same “genre” and the related saga of 2012 (which includes a fine Delfi.lt exposé by a young Lithuanian journalist, and a bold protest staged by nine young Lithuanian human rights champions at an exhibition of the “art” of the envelope maker)

April-June 2023

Latest Shenanigans for the Old Vilna Jewish Cemetery at Piramónt (Shnípeshok, today’s Šnipiškės)

After the Defending History led campaign to thwart the “national convention center on top of the Vilna Jewish cemetery” culminated in success, powerful forces continue to try to “save” the unsightly ruin of the Soviet Sports Palace built in the cemetery’s center, this time around via plans for a “Jewish museum.” See the latest in Defending History.

Reminder: There is not one Jewish museum, Jewish center, or Jewish institution on the planet built on top of an old Jewish cemetery, among other reasons because this is strictly forbidden by Jewish law, and any such misguided endeavor would be ipso facto shunned or boycotted by traditional religious Jews, and many other people, Jewish and non-Jewish, in solidarity with their millennial sensibilities, and in harmony with universal humanistic respect for the rights of the deceased to be left in peace and respected, which is a right now enumerated by the US Congress and the European Union, among others, as part of universal human rights.

March-April 2023

Rabbi Zev Meir Friedman, dean of New York’s Rambam Mesivta High School, leads over 100 students on a peaceful demonstration outside the Lithuanian Consulate in Manhattan  (also in Matzav.com; European Jewish Press)

March 2023

March’s Marching Season in the Baltics: Latvian & Lithuanian worshippers of Hitler’s henchmen continue to be gifted the centers of Riga and Vilnius…

The Holocaust in Latvia: Amid a general silence over this year’s shameful March 16th central-Riga worship of the Latvian Waffen SS, the Defending History community honors Roland Binet for his years of activism and superb musical compositions in remembrance of the victims and protest of celebrations of Hitlerist forces. Binet is a master of original music composition as a voice of historic protest.

See also Defending History’s coverage of central Riga’s annual Waffen SS fest since 2010

Julius Norwilla’s eyewitness report of far-right’s march in central Vilnius on 11 March 2023

Journey to Lithuania and Poland in May 2023

February 2023

16 February 2023:

Happy  105th Independence Day, Lithuania!

We all join in celebrating February 16th 1918, just 105 years ago, that ushered in the successful interwar republic. Classic image of the Jews of the shtetl Dorbyán (Darbėnai, northwestern Lithuania) in 1928 celebrating the tenth anniversary of the happy day so cherished by all the peoples in the land. . .

Also: In 2018, to honor the 100th anniversary of independence, we established the (still slow moving) Mini Museum of Jewish Life in Interwar Lithuania

February 2023

Vilma Fiokla Kiurė on How Minorities’ Bravery in Defending Ukraine is Changing Some Attitudes in Lithuania

Review of Michael Kretzmer’s documentary “J’Accuse”

January 2023

Roza Bieliauskienė (1946 – 2023)


Roland Binet Reviews New BBC Documentary on the Onset of the East European Holocaust

Vilma Fiokla Kiurė on Image of Roma in Ukraine in Light of Heroism in War

Evaldas Balčiūnas Reflects on his Life

New Year’s Day 2023

Defending History’s 2023 Person of the Year is Announced…

Evaldas Balčiūnas (photo: Defending History)

Who were Defending History’s previous People of the Year?


Happy New Year 2023!

The Defending History community’s annual new year’s meditation

December 2022

Last Days of “Kaunas 2022 Capital of European Culture”


the shocking “omission of the main point” in Jerusalem Post’s coverage

Roland Binet on Latest Example of Baltic Revisionism Seeping Westwards

November 2022

We mourn the sudden and untimely death of our dear colleague, mentor and teacher


(4 January 1944 — 9 November  2022)


The entire Defending History community mourns the  untimely sudden death of the great Holocaust historian, who was editing his book on the East European revisionist campaign, and its many Western and Jewish nochsheppers, in his final months. Inspired by Randolph L. Braham (1922-2018), among others, Professor Shafir’s papers covering the whole swath of East European governments’ huge investments to “fix” the Holocaust made him the pioneer of the academic and intellectual resistance to state-sponsored Double Genocide revisionism. May his completed book and all his other writings soon be made accessible to scholars and the public alike. His works will live on and in time come to be recognized for their successful exposure of the vast and elaborately financed efforts to obfuscate the Holocaust.

Papers by Michael Shafir

Michael Shafir section in DefendingHistory.com

November 2022

A one-sided event at Yale and the Fortunoff Archive in New Haven on 9 Nov. 2022? Speakers are long-time members of the Lithuanian government financed “Red-Brown Commission” that is a prime engine of the Double Genocide revisionist movement in Europe

London Jewish Chronicle reports on last wish of 100 year old Holocaust survivor and heroic partisan veteran Fania Yocheles Brantsovsky: Preserve for posterity Europe’s last Jewish fort from Holocaust times! (background; 100th birthday and list of videos)

John Oxley’s  ‘non-Critical’ piece in ‘The Critic’ Magazine: Some PR for Europe’s most antisemitic and far right revisionist museum — Vilnius’s ‘Genocide Museum’ that turns Hitlerist Holocaust perpetrators into ‘gallant heroes’. The DefendingHistory.com community views of the museum.

Yet again, Holocaust revisionism commission puts on a macabre show for naive foreign Jewish visitors in Vilnius

October  2022

Julius Norwilla on Lithuania’s overdue spiritual analogue of: “Russian warship go f**k yourself!”

Roland Binet on latest attempt to export Baltic revisionist Holocaust history to Belgium and the West

Defending History on stream of ‘useful idiots’ brought to legitimize Kaunas’s ‘Capital of European Culture’ year without removing a single state sponsored, city-center public-space shrine to Holocaust collaborators (and to actual local perpetrators)

Will the state-sponsored ‘Red-Brown Commission’ in Vilnius ever apologize for its public role in defamation of Lithuanian Holocaust survivors who joined the anti-Nazi resistance and are heroes of the free world?  (background)

Will ‘liberal professors’ (and tolerance-loving students!) ever call publicly for removal of shrines to Hitler’s Nazi puppet PM in Kaunas from Vytautas Magnus University lecture hall?  (background)

Sept. 2022

Vilnius Cinderella Comes to the Ball (belatedly, and in Berlin)

German Wikipedia now tells the tale of Lithuania’s Rachel (Rokhl, Rochel) Kostanian, who for decades led a one-woman campaign in Vilnius for truth about the Holocaust, standing up to some very powerful forces. Photo: Rachel in Berlin with Thomas Pfanne, former German cultural attaché in Lithuania, after she was honored by the president of Germany. See Defending History’s Rachel Kostanian section.

Sept. 2022

Defending History Turns 13

On our pages TEN YEARS AGO

It pays to defend history: success stories

Our authors: Who has written for DH during its first dozen years?

Our survivors’ Yiddish oral history archive reaches 670 videos

DH editor in the neo-nazi, far right & fellow traveler imagination

Aug. 2022

We Honor Fania Yocheles Brantsovsky on her 100th Birthday

We join Fania in calling for preservation of Europe’s last Jewish partisan fort in the forests (“Fania’s Fort”), where 100 Jewish escapees from the Vilna Ghetto lived and fought the Nazis during the Holocaust as part of the anti-Nazi resistance. The fort in the forest, which should become a major Lithuanian, Baltic, UNESCO, Jewish Heritage and European Union site to be cherished, is rapidly disappearing because of far-right history revisionists in high positions.

There is also an urgent need to ask the Lithuanian government to issue a written apology and retraction following a decade and a half of defamation for the history books, a defamation that has included a formal statement from the executive director of the state-sponsored “red-brown commission” that also runs Holocaust studies in the country.

See Defending History’s Fania Brantsovsky Section and some of our videos with dear Fania over the last 25 years

August 2022

Are Leaders of Estonia, Latvia, Lithuania, Poland, Romania ‘Taking Advantage’ of Ukraine Tragedy? They Call on EU to Support Far-Right Holocaust-Obfuscating ‘Prague Platform’

July 2022

President Zelensky Dismisses Ukraine’s Ambassador to Germany after Shameful Public Worship of Stepan Bandera, a Major Holocaust Collaborator

See G. Rossolinski-Liebe’s authoritative study of Bandera’s Hitlerist history and the racist, fascist leader’s inspiration of hundreds of thousands of murders of Polish and Jewish civilians. Erika Solomon’s update in the New York Times

Defending History was ahead of curve; see from earlier years Bandera section and some of Dr. Rossolinski-Liebe’s earlier writings in Defending History; DH’s Collaborators Glorified section for the wider context of the issue in contemporary Eastern Europe (more details on Sections page)

February–August 2022

Civilized World Condemns Putin’s War of Barbaric Mass Murder in Ukraine

The Defending History community joins in calling for immediate restoration of peace and security for all the people of Ukraine, condemning unequivocally the savage and barbaric invasion — and rain of death and destruction — by a neighboring big power, led by our century’s most dangerous and deranged warmonger dictator.

As a small gesture of spiritual solidarity, our Yiddish Studies team has constructed a modest new collection of videos of Ukraine’s last Yiddish speaking survivors. Ukraine alone spans every modern dialect of the language.

June 2022

Israel’s Prof. Ben-Tsiyon Klibansky, During Recent Visit to Vilnius, Boldly Spoke Out in Mainstream Media (Lrt.lt) on State Glorification of Holocaust Collaborators

in Lithuanian  &  in English
Related: Defending History’s Collaborators Glorified section. See also sections on  23 June 1941 (and its public-space commemoration), J. Ambrazevičius (Brazaitis), A. Baltūsis-Žvejas, J. Lukša, J. Noreika, A. Ramanauskas (+ New Britain, Conn. saga), K. Škirpa, J. Žemaitis.
Professor Klibansky is a major contemporary scholar of the history of Lithuanian Jewry. His book on Lithuanian yeshivas has just come off the press…

June 2022

Uh-Oh, Here We Go Again: Secret Memorandum on Future of Vilna Great Synagogue Courtyard

UPDATE: DH Publishes the memorandum, commissions full translation

Just in: Concern in official “Lithuanian Jewish Community” circles about possible 7-year insinuation of alleged Putinist (with potentially dangerous influence over English language website and comms, and community’s leadership). Refers to Ukrainian victims of barbaric Putin invasion as “fascists” (in a country where over 70% voted for a Jewish president in the last election…). More here and here. English readers: sample here.

27 May 2022

Happy 60th Birthday to our Staff Writer Evaldas Balčiūnas, Unique Lithuanian Ethicist

A major unheralded truthsayer of our times

Lithuania’s most intrepid pursuer of historic truth and its defense. A decade ago, his series “Why Does My Country Honor Murderers?” included his 2012 revelation to the English speaking world on the Holocaust collaboration of “national hero” Jonas Noreika. From 2014 onward he was for years dragged into court in a prosecutorial campaign of kangaroo hearings and harassment. Defending History stood with him with pride. Today his work (selection in English) is sometimes undercredited elsewhere. But not here. Happy Birthday Evaldas!

May 2022

Another ‘World Litvak Congress’ in Vilnius

Efraim Zuroff’s critique in The Times of Israel


Why is this Photo on Lithuania’s Foreign Ministry Website So Disturbing?

Julius Norwilla in Defending History


Is a New Book by Director of Vilnius ‘Genocide Center’ & Published by ‘Red-Brown Commission’ a Tool for Far-Right East European Holocaust Revisionism? 

Evaldas Balčiūnas in Defending History. Online German version

Background on Genocide Center: DH section & page; review of its museum in Tablet

Background on “International Commission for the Evaluation of the Crimes of the Nazi and Soviet Occupational Regimes in Lithuania” (ICECNSORL or, as dubbed by Vilnius diplomats for brevity: The Red-Brown Commission): DH page & section


To mark Yom Hashoah 2022, Lev Golinkin releases new edition of epic study of some 1500 shrines (in some 30 countries)  honoring Nazi collaborators

Lev Golinkin in the Forward


Is New York City’s Jewish Museum the Latest Western Jewish Institution to be Duped into “Legitimizing” East European Far-Right Holocaust Revisionism?

Michael Casper in Jewish CurrentsReport in the Jerusalem Post.


102 Year Old Lithuanian Jewish Holocaust Survivor Explains Why May 9th is Still Precious 

Yetta Gurvich reflects (Yiddish video). Part of LYVA (Lithuanian Yiddish Video Archive).

April 2022

New Digital Video Archive of Survivor Testimonies from Belarus, Latvia, Lithuania, Ukraine (& Northeastern Poland) Passes the 650 Video Mark

March 11 and 16:

Even this year, Latvia and Lithuania permit city-center far-right, collaborator-glorifying marches that idolize Holocaust collaborators:

David Pugliese in the Ottawa Citizen on Latvia’s Waffen SS glorification event

Julius Norwilla in Defending History on Vilnius’s far-right city-center event

Feb. 2022

February is “Can you imagine?” month…

Can you imagine a museum in South Africa dedicated to the history of Apartheid without a single on-site African member of staff on site?

Can you imagine a museum in Mississippi of Slavery without a single on-site African-American member of staff?

Can you imagine a museum of Lithuanian shtetl history in Lithuania without a single on-site Jewish member of staff?

Yes, it’s  the Lost Shtetl Museum in Sheduva (Šeduva), Lithuania.

Will it tell the truth about who (exactly) massacred the Jews of Sheduva?

Will it reveal its “top secret” multimillion-dollar donors of a massive new building and complex in town? Transparency is paramount when it comes to Jewish history on ground zero of the East European Holocaust.

Evaldas Balčiūnas has published an outline for  his play: Museum of  the Lost Truth.

Are South African, Russian or other anonymous tycoons again being duped by slick Lithuanian government operatives?

See also DH sections on Sheduva; Museums; and unique, exclusive recordings of the amazing Christian Lithuanian Yiddish speaker and Holocaust truth teller of Sheduva, Elena Rimdžiūtė (video; clip; article).

Someone has to defend history and ask the hard questions. That’s us. Thank you for your support.

Jan. 2022

Kaunas — EU Capital of European Culture for 2022

Will city’s leaders finally remove state-sponsored public-space shrines, sculptures & street names glorifying local Hitlerists who helped annihilate city’s 30,000 Jews in the Holocaust?


Composer and pianist Michael Levinas, son of French philosopher Emmanuel Levinas, publicly protests Lithuania’s naming an institute in Kaunas for his father. Op-ed in Le Figaro (in English). Interview in Actualité Juive (in English).

“The question on everybody’s mind” is: Will the Levinas Center leaders, staff, sponsors and visitors politely ask that the city of Kaunas now, in its year as “Capital of European Culture” rapidly remove state-sponsored shrines to the local murderers of Levinas’s family and the other 30,000 Jewish citizens of Kaunas? Or will the Levinas Center become one of the “Useful Jewish Idiot Addresses” that are used to cover for current policies of glorification of Nazi perpetrators and defamation of local dissidents?





PS: Seems that a Levinas-named entity deemed not suitable for Vilnius University’s Faculty of Philosophy, just the “Health Sciences” unit (Medical School & Veterinary Univ.) in Kaunas, during the era of the Ramanauskas Year, the Lukša Year, & Kaunas Capital of European Culture, all of which glorify Kaunas’s Holocaust enablers.

Takes on Kaunas 2022 in the wake of Nazi shrines abounding in town (and the university): Arndt Beck; Thomas Pfanne; Dovid Katz

The plaque with bas-relief glorifying the prime minister of Adolf Hitler’s puppet government in Kaunas. That “provisional government” collaborated in the sudden and total dehumanization of the city’s 30,000 Jewish citizens. It still adorns a lecture hall in his name at the city’s Vytautas Magnus University. There is also a matrix of street names and public-space exhibits glorifying the Holocaust’s perpetrators. Will the EU politely call for their removal as Kaunas becomes “Capital of European Culture” or are these the EU’s lax new standards for elementary European values? See the reactions when the Nazi puppet PM was reburied with full honors nearly a decade ago.

Jan. 2022

Who are Defending History’s 2022 Persons of the Year?

Dec. 2021

Sad Setback for Vilnius’s Standing in the West

City Council opens brand new square named for alleged 1941 Holocaust murderer Juozas Lukša (“Daumantas”) in spite of pleas and testimony from the (late) last Holocaust Survivors who provided evidence.  Council members tell DH off the record: “What do you want, this was a grand compromise with the Jews, not to make the square in the old town or city center!” (citing far-right demands for the square to be opposite the Jewish Community building).

See Defending History’s chronology of the 2021 debate, including links to Alex Faitelson’s book, British Parliament members’ 2012 early day motion, and 2021 calls from World Jewish Congress’s Dr. Laurence Weinbaum, the Jewish Community of Lithuania, and (very unusually) the American Jewish Committee. See essays by Defending History’s Dovid Katz and Evaldas Balčiūnas.

Testimony identified Mr. Lukša as one of the participants in the beheading of Rabbi Zalmen Osovsky of Slabodka (before the arrival of German forces) and as a participant in the Kaunas Lietukis Garage Massacre.


search by author

Dec. 2021

‘It pays to defend history!’

Town Council of Zedelgem, Belgium, Decides to Dismantle Offensive ‘Beehive’ Monument to Latvia’s Waffen SS


Dec. 2021

Lithuanian Yiddish Video Archive Passes 500 Video, 12,000 View Milestone

Online for the first time: 30 years of Holocaust Survivor testimonies from Lithuania, Latvia, Belarus, Ukraine

Yoel Matveyev’s coverage in the Yiddish Forward (Nov. 2021)

Survivor testimonies and linguistic and cultural interviews, all in Yiddish, videographed mostly in situ from 1990 to 2020

Excerpts of testimonies on the launch of the Lithuanian Holocaust in the week of 23 June 1941; in Latvia

Oct. 2021

Roland Binet on the Road Sign Welcoming Visitors to Zedelgem, Belgium’s Town with the Nazist Waffen SS Monument

Evaldas Balčiūnas on the Holocaust in Šeduva, a Town in Northern Lithuania

26 Sept. 2021

Vilma Fiokla Kiurė on Roma Issues in Lithuania

Sept. 2021

Defending History Turns 12

Founded on 6 Sept. 2009. Emailed circulars and reports from May 2008 were then uploaded making for a record starting in 2008, A dozen years of posts provide a unique record.

Quiz: How many and which authors have published in Defending History?


10 years ago.  7 years ago.  5 years ago.  3 years ago

Contributions in the United States are now fully tax-deductible via the new nonprofit Preserving Yiddish and Defending History.

Sept. 2021

Congratulations Start to Pour in to Lithuania’s Prime Minister Ingrida Šimonytė on 16 Aug. Cancellation of Vilnius Convention Center in the Cemetery (“CCC”)

Agudath Israel of America leads the way (18 Aug. statement; 25 Aug.  Jewish Tribune)

Deans of three top Lithuanian yeshivas, all named for cities in Lithuania, congratulate PM

Lithuania’s prime minister Ingrida Šimonytė “just did the right thing” (Getty Images)

During mid-August lull, many were caught unaware (reports in DH, DH UpdatesAlgemeiner Journal, JTA)

Vested  interests (commercial and  ultranationalist/antisemitic) quickly ensnared Vilnius mayor and city council to demand reversal

Rumors (still uncorroborated) spread of  plans by usual “gov. Jewish unit” for another “quisling and UJI [‘useful Jewish idiot’] conference” to cloud the issues and cover for “slow-motion rollback” of PM’s bold decision. That trick had (Sadly) worked back in 2007-2008 when leading American Jewish scholars were lavishly brought to a “committee” to cover for building “just the second green building” on top of the cemetery (still known locally as the “D.E. Fishman Building”), on the “understanding” that no more would ever be desecrated with commercial projects…

From the history of the saga

26 Aug. 2021

Silvia Foti in the Wall Street Journal (26 Aug. 2021)

(as PDF)


25 August 2021

In Shock to Admirers, Vilnius Mayor Remigijus Šimašius Calls for Reversing Gov’s Cancellation of ‘Convention Center in the Jewish Cemetery’

Question: Is this how he wants to o down in the 700 year and counting history of Vilna (Vilnius/Vílne/Vilna/Wilno)?

18 August 2021

All welcome in Malát (Molėtai), Lithuania, on

Sunday 29 August

16 August 2021

Success! It Pays to Defend History!

Bravo to Lithuania’s Gov on Decision to Move Convention Center Project away from Old Jewish Cemetery

Lithuanian mass media: top journalist Arvydas Jockus reports in Alfa.lt



DH’s coverage of the Vilnius cemetery saga: Look at it chronologically, or work back from the most recent






DH’s coordination of international opposition. Some highlights

Other Jewish cemeteries in Eastern Europe must be saved from mercenary corrupt clutches of London’s CPJCE and complicit cowardice of US gov’s USCPAHA


Augusat 2021

Danny Ben-Moshe’s Documentary Film Rewriting History Now Free on Youtube

“Nearly a decade later it’s more relevant than ever”

 As a matter of Interest…

Which American Jewish leaders and Western academics would “adjust” their views of the Holocaust after getting medals, trinkets, photo-ops & assorted glories from East European governments hooked on Holocaust revisionism (governments that crave Western/Jewish silence — abject silence — on state glorification of local Nazi collaborators)?

for example

Some major, city-center glorification of Nazi and Holocaust Collaborators — in August 2021

Photographic selection.   Lev Golinkin’s international survey.

August 2021

Playwright Marius Ivaškevičius’s in-depth videotaped interview with DH editor Dovid Katz:

Now Online

August 2021

Harvard’s Prof. Alan Dershowitz on the Old Vilna Jewish Cemetery:

“Beyond raising a compelling constitutional issue, this resolution is wrong as a matter of justice, historical preservation, basic decency and the dignity of the dead.”

Prof. Alan Dershowitz

July 2021

Roland Binet’s New Musical Composition on the 80th Anniversary of the Outbreak of the Baltic Holocaust

June 2021

Photo-Op Starved Officials of US Taxpayer Funded “USCPAHA” (with State Dept. “Special Holocaust Envoy”) on Vilnius Visit; Triumphant Images are Tweeted

But did they even  bother to meet with Ruta Bloshtein, author of the international  petition calling on the Lithuanian government to move the national convention center project away  from the sacred old Vilnius Jewish Cemetery? Her office, in the Judaica section of the national library, is a short walk from their gov. meetings.  Petition has 53,500 signatures to date. History of the US taxpayer-funded commission’s role in the affair. Meanwhile international opposition to desecration of the old Jewish cemetery grows apace. And on the Holocaust? Not a word of critique of state projects to glorify the local perpetrators on the eve of the 80th anniversary of 23 June 1941, when the Lithuanian Holocaust broke out. Land of “tweeted photo-ops fix all”. . .

23 June 2021

June 23rd 2021: 80th Anniversary of the Outbreak of the Lithuanian Holocaust

When “white-armbanders” and LAF followers began to injure, plunder, humiliate and (in 40 locations) murder thousands of Jews across Lithuania (before arrival or taking-of-control by the first German forces). And who will honor the real Lithuanian heroes of 1941 — the amazing, inspirational folks who saved a neighbor from the LAF and the Hitlerist hordes?

Will the state and its “history” units finally honor the victims or again perpetuate the far-right pro-fascist false history that this was some minor crossfire in a “great revolt against the Soviets”?  The Soviets were fleeing Hitler’s Operation Barbarossa, the largest invasion in human history — not the local white-armbanded Jew killers.

A freedom fighters’ revolt? Hitlerist white-armbanders surround Jewish women being marched to their death. These militias, responsible for deaths of Jewish civilians in forty locations in Lithuania prior to German arrival, are honored by the state as “freedom fighters”….

Another “conference to paper it all over” adorned by “useful Jewish academics” from far and wide?


6 May 2021

Yitzhak Arad, Hero of Jewish Partisans in Forests of Lithuania, and in Israel’s War of Independence, a Major Holocaust Scholar, Dies in Tel Aviv at 94

Yitzhak Arad (1926-2021)

Holocaust revisionist who started the campaign against Arad in 2006 (in interview in the antisemitic Respublika  representing state’s “Genocide Center”) is today the nation’s Minister of Defense.

Arad was first Jewish partisan veteran to be libeled by kangaroo prosecutions of Lithuania’s “history fixing” units  attempts to revise Holocaust history. Major effort was to paint victims as perpetrators and perpetrators as victims. Follow the ins-and-outs in Defending History.

In 2012, Dr. Arad reported that Yad Vashem (under Israeli Foreign Ministry pressure) had refused to publish his own paper on Holocaust revisionism in Lithuania and asked for it to appear on the pages of Defending History.

For decades he was the leader of Yad Vashem in Jerusalem. But when, in retirement, the Lithuanian assault got underway, he felt betrayed and abandoned by Yad Vashem (and after some early support) by the Israeli Foreign Ministry.  Neither seriously demanded the needed letter of apology (still doable for posterity).


22 April 2021

In “Shameful” Decision Lithuanian Parliament Appoints Glorifier of Holocaust Collaborators as Director of State’s “Genocide Center”

Secret ballot: 76 for, 34 against,8 abstentions, 2 spoiled ballots

Defending History Reports on Nomination

“No, Sir. This is No Photoshop”

Algemeiner Journal is first US publication to cover the news

Earlier: On the Bubnys nomination.  In the Algemeiner JournalOn Dr. Bubnys’s record. The state-sponsored Genocide Center. On glorifying collaborators.

Addressing a group of far-right and neo-Nazi devotees on 23 June 2020, Dr. Bubnys proudly speaks under a banner of two notorious Hitler collaborators, Jonas Noreika (see Silvia Foti’s new book) and Kazys Škirpa. The 23rd of June 1941 is the date remembered by Lithuanian Jewry as the outbreak of the Holocaust with onset of  widespread murder, dehumanizing degradation and humiliation of civilian Jewish neighbors by the “white armbanders” and “LAF” forces (whose pamphlets declared explicitly their plans for their nation’s Jewish citizens). But instead of honoring the victims, the state’s far-right historians-in-tow glorify the perpetrators as “anti-Soviet rebels,” a well known historic nonsense: the Soviet army was fleeing Operation Barbarossa, Hitler’s invasion of the USSR, the largest invasion of human history, not the local Jew-killers with their white armbands. More on the historic background.

Tension mounts: How will  Lithuania’s government (and its state-sponsored historians and “foreign Jewish leaders in tow“) mark the eightieth anniversary two months from now, on 23 June 2021?

14 April 2021

Milan  Chersonski

1937 – 2021

From his dozen years as editor of the Lithuanian Jewish Community’s former quadrilingual newspaper, Jerusalem of Lithuania

His writings over the last decade in Defending History

His 80th Birthday celebration in Vilnius

15 April 2021

Historian Who Poses Proudly with Posters of Holocaust Collaborators is Nominated to be Head of Lithuania’s State-Sponsored Far-Right “Genocide Center”

“Why does Lithuania keep doing this to itself?”

Dr. Arūnas Bubnys, chief historian at the state sponsored “Genocide Center” proudly glorifies June 23rd 1941 (on June 23rd 2020  — pandemic or no pandemic…) under the visages of Holocaust perpetrator J. Noreika (left) and ethnic cleansing advocate K. Škirpa in central Vilnius. Photo: Julius Norwilla


April 2021

Silvia Foti’s The Nazi’s Granddaughter Has Appeared

The Lithuanian Holocaust perpetrator’s Chicago-based granddaughter has told the whole truth about her grandfather, J. Noreika. But meanwhile, in central Vilnius, a flashy new plaque (erected less than two years ago) continues to glorify the collaborator, who helped organize the destruction of thousands of Jewish citizens. As the 80th anniversary of the onset of the Lithuanian Holocaust, 23 June 1941, rapidly approaches this June, the question arises: Will the government (and its sycophants) again be honoring the perpetrators on this day, or, at long last, the victims? Last year, the chief historian of the state-sponsored “Genocide Center” stood proudly before a neo-Nazi banner glorifying two major collaborators (including Mr. Noreika…).

Defending History has been on the Noreika case for 9 years. For years on end our correspondent was lugged into court with kangaroo prosecutions. Scroll down to May 2014 to read more.

Meanwhile, Kaunas’s Vytautas Magnus University continues to feature a lecture hall named for, and adorned by a bas relief of  a second major collaborator, the Nazi puppet prime minister of 1941. Hopefully the city of Kaunas will remove all its shrines to Nazi collaborators before being named a “capital of European culture” in 2022. See Lev Golinkin’s sweeping expose, earlier this year, of the wider issue of glorification of Holocaust perpetrators internationally.

April 2021

We need your support to stop the current tidal wave of East European Holocaust revisionism

(that often progresses with the de facto underpinning of American Jewish organizations whose leaders are addicted to “Glories and Medals in the East”  

Support for Defending History is now fully tax deductible

Danny Ben-Moshe’s film Rewriting History is again online!

Come see our latest reports…

Defending History is no fly-by-night. On our pages…



6 April 2021

All Welcome at Yom Hashoah Event Featuring DH Editor Dovid Katz

in international discussion of Danny Ben Moshe’s film Rewriting History

Tuesday 6 April 2021 at Midday US Eastern time (5 PM London, 7 PM Israel and Baltics)

Admission free but registration required

March 2021

Roland Binet on

The Monument to Latvia’s Hitlerist Waffen SS Divisions in a Town in — Belgium

Passover songs in the Lithuanian Yiddish tradition

March 2021

Joel Lion, Israel’s Ambassador to Ukraine, Boldly Slams Latest Municipal Honor for Nazi Collaborators

Ben Cohen reports in the Algemeiner

March 2021

‘My Heritage’ and ‘Litvak SIG’ Announce Availability of Millions of New Jewish Genealogical Records

Collection from the Lithuanian lands covers the period from Catherine the Great to the Holocaust. Report in the Jewish Chronicle.

Feb. 2021

Cinderella finally comes to the ball

President of Germany Awards the state’s Order of Merit to Rachel Kostanian, the “Mother of History Dissidents in Eastern Europe”

“A Powerful Statement”

See: DH’s report; press release from Berlin; recent tributes on Kostanian’s 91st birthday; DH’s Rachel Kostanian Section spanning over a dozen years

Welcome to Defending History!

A safe space that genuinely respects your privacy. No log-ins. No passwords. No offers of notifications or pop-ups.  Just read what and when you like. Over a dozen years, we have covered under-the-radar issues that went from obscure to the forefront on the international arena.

The East European far right’s clever and lavishly financed campaign to rewrite, revise, and fix history (with the help of well-meaning naive westerners) is finally under serious challenge. Together we can defend history, and along with it, human rights and dignity (of the living and dead alike), equality, free speech, and the values of free society and liberal democracy.

The Latest in Defending History


16 February 2021

Happy  Independence Day, Lithuania!

We all join in celebrating February 16th 1918, just 103 years ago, that ushered in the successful interwar republic. Classic image of the Jews of the shtetl Dorbyán (Darbėnai, northwestern Lithuania) in 1928 celebrating the tenth anniversary of the happy day so cherished by all the peoples in the land. . .

12 February 2021

Viktorija Kazlienė, Internationally Admired Director of Molėtai (Malát) Regional Museum in Lithuania, on Developing Holocaust & Jewish Cultural Memorials in Region

— Based on Historic Honesty, Intercultural Cooperation, and Bona Fide Reconciliation

Viktorija Kazlienė

See DH section  on the unique role of Moletai (Malát) and its region in ongoing Holocaust  and Jewish cultural commemoration in Lithuania and beyond over the past five years

February 2021

February Flare-Up of Holocaust Polemics in Lithuanian Mass Media:

1: Defending History’s take on the sunshine boy “heroes” — perpetually silent until all are in any case slamming an obscure parliamentarian (or the far-right, antisemitic Genocide Center) for the usual Holocaust falsification.

2: The naming of 2021 for an alleged perpetrator of LAF atrocities against the Jews of Kovno (Kaunas) in June 1941.

February 2021

Lithuania’s Liveliest Cemetery (Piramónt – Šnipiškės)

1. Aliide Naylor’s “Soviet Modernism’s Enduring Baltic Legacy” in Jacobin.

2. Latest: US Commission’s P. Packer, silent on the cemetery his commission is responsible for, finds other things with which to make himself an American Jewish hero.

3. Julius Norwilla warns of the dangers of “illusory progress” on saving the Old Vilna cemetery.

4. Christian News Journal claims State Dept. and US Embassy shift to clear new stance on the old Vilna cemetery’s preservation.

6 February 2021


Professor Joseph Parason

(Josifas Parasonis)

27 January 2021

Holocaust Remembrance Day Leads to Veritable Battle of History

Silvia Foti in the New York Times

Public historical debate and coverage of  East European state efforts to “fix the narrative” and export the revisionism to an unsuspecting West.

Lev Golinkin’s survey (and interactive map) in the Forward of monuments to Nazi perpetrators in Eastern Europe, and increasingly in the West, makes ample reference to Defending History’s role in bringing these issues to the world’s attention over the last dozen years.

Efraim Zuroff slams Israeli foreign minister’s betryal of Holocaust history. See DH’s Israel chronicle page.

Dovid Katz on the need to politely confront the major state actors, not just convenient small-fry outrages.

31 January 2021

Warm Good Wishes Pour in For Rachel Kostanian on her 91st Birthday (31 Jan. 2021)

For decades the spirit of life and leadership at Vilnius’s legendary Green House. See Defending History’s Rachel Kostanian section. Her best-known book is Spiritual Resistance in the Vilna Ghetto (with preface by Sir Martin Gilbert).

January 2021

Israel’s Ambassador Joel Lion in Kiev

Israel’s Ambassador Joel Lion in Ukraine Boldly Condemns Annual Parade Glorifying Holocaust Collaborator Stepan Bandera; JTA’s Cnaan Liphshiz Reports

But at same time, Israeli Foreign Ministry colludes  to silence dialogue on glorification of Holocaust collaborators in Lithuania (including the “naming of 2021”); Wiesenthal Center’s Dr. Zuroff protests in Jerusalem Post

Lithuanian Parliament’s dedication of 2021 to memory of J. Lukša, alleged Kaunas 1941 killer is little mentioned after early protests by WJC’s Dr. Laurence Weinbaum, and Yakov Faitelson, son of legendary escaper from Ninth Fort. Defending History’s take, chronology of the debate, and alternative dedication of 2021. Even the usually hesitant official Jewish community, and its AJC partner, spoke out


Dec. 2020  — Jan. 2021

Vilma Fiokla Kiurė: Updates on Women’s Issues in Lithuania


Defending History’s Persons of the Year 2021

Dovid Katz on Uniqueness of the First Week of the Lithuanian Holocaust (on its 80th Anniversary)

Commemorate Victims and Savers, Not Perpetrators”

See also: Dovid Katz’s webinar at the Jewish Holocaust Center in Melbourne, Australia on “Writing the Holocaust Out of History (without denying a single death)”


Andrius Kulikauskas Reports: Major Success in Campaign to Save Old Vilna Jewish Cemetery from Convention Center Desecration; Follows up with BNS Press Release

Lithuanian Parliament Nixes Convention Project’s Budget for 2021

 Julius Norwilla conceived this Star of David as a symbol of fellowship for November 1, 2020, the traditional day for visiting cemeteries throughout Lithuania. From left: Andrius Kulikauskas, Ruta Bloshtein, Povilas Birbilas, Vanda Birbilienė and Julius Norwilla stand in front with a bag of stones. Edmundas Kulikauskas and Arkadij Kurliandchik stand on the bank of the Neris with the Sports Palace behind them. Photo: William Adan Pahl.

14 Dec. 2020

Are US Tax Dollars Really Going for Glorification of Holocaust Collaborators in Ukraine?

25 Nov. 2020

Vilma Fiokla Kiurė on the Fate of a Roma Boy in Vilnius

Dovid Katz’s lecture on “Writing the Holocaust out of History?” at the Jewish Holocaust Centre in Melbourne, Australia now on Youtube (PP presentation online)

Defending History’s editor is named to Top 100 People Positively Influencing Jewish Life in 2020 at @Algemeiner’s annual banquet (#J100) in New York City. DH’s campaign to save Old Vilna Jewish Cemetery is cited.

Nov. 2020

Are Authorities in Latvia Trying to Shut Down Riga’s Famous Outdoor Holocaust Museum?

Petition is Launched

Yakov Faitelson Calls on the Lithuanian Parliament to Reconsider Decision to Name 2021 in Honor of Alleged Participant in Kaunas Atrocities of June 1941

Participation of honoree witnessed in both Kaunas Garage Massacre and the beheading of Rabbi Zalmen Osovsky. See chronology of the 2020 debate. Yakov Faitelson joins protests by Defending History, Dr. Laurence Weinbaum (World Jewish Congress),  Rabbi Andrew Baker (American Jewish Committee) and Ms. Faina Kukliansky (head of official Jewish Community of Lithuania).

Nov. 2020

“Lithuania’s Liveliest Cemetery”

♦ Prof. Josifas Parasonis of Vilnius, professor of building sciences uses science, common sense and humanity to come to a simple conclusion

♦ Julius Norwilla, head of Committee for Piramónt, exposes huge budget hole being made to put convention center project on top of the cemetery

Dr. Andrius Kulikauskas, editor of Respect Cemeteries, calls on readers to write to Lithuanian parliament’s budget masters by Nov. 10th deadline

♦ Next Vilnius District Court Hearing on Fate of the Cemetery is on November 24th

Eyewitness reports on recent hearings:

1 October Vilnius hearing;  6 Oct. hearing;

Earlier report on stance of European Foundation for Human Rights. Reports in Algemeiner Journal and Jerusalem Post.

Defending History was there…

Autumn 2020

Trending in Defending…

Does the president’s PR team really want big posters of Holocaust collaborators at his rallies?

Summer 2020

Making Heroes out of Holocaust Collaborators: Spreading to the West?

Does Vilnius Really Need ‘Convention Center in the Jewish Cemetery’?

Will an EU Member Parliament Really Name 2021 for Alleged Participant in 1941 Kaunas Atrocities?

Tragic Fate of Inspirationally Brave Lithuanian Rescuers

Lithuanian Jewish Commmunity: ‘Concern’ over Appointment of Genocide Center Deputy Head who Specializes in Whitewashing Holocaust Crimes of 1941 Hitlerist LAF and Nazi Puppet Provisional Gov.

US contributions for defending history are now tax-deductible

″The Power of the Ancient Hebrew Letters”

Arkady Kurliandchik and Dr. Andrius Kulikauskas lead a group in partnership with the Vilnius Jewish Community, in placing stones with Hebrew letters painted  in the traditional gold paint (used to highlight lettering in old Lithuanian Jewish / Litvak gravestones) at the Old Vilna Jewish Cemetery at Piramónt (Šnipiškės / Shnípeshok), site of the abandoned Soviet sports palace and a planned national convention center. Thousands of graves are still there all around the building. The new gold-lettered Jewish stones were variously placed to mark out the approximate perimeter of the cemetery.

Stone lettering and photos: Andrius Kulikauskas

Vilnius Jewish Community’s Pre-Tíshebov Event at the Old Vilna Jewish Cemetery on 29 July. More on the event: Andrius Kulikauskas

Recent News:

Vilnius City Council rushes through decision for convention center with annex in heart of Old Vilna Jewish Cemetery.  Julius Norwilla reports from VilniusRabbi Elchonon Baron reacts from Jerusalem (video).


Series of webinars by Dovid Katz on Litvaks, Yiddish, the Lithuanian Holocaust (and the contemporary debates)

July 2020

Stinging Pain for Lithuanian Jews & Holocaust Survivor Families More Widely, as Seimas Names 2021 for Alleged Participant in June 1941 Kaunas Atrocities

Editor’s take. Chronology of events and publications. WJC’s Dr. Laurence Weinbaum in the Jewish Chronicle. Rare protest from AJC with LJC. But Wiesenthal Center strangely silent for first time

6 July 2020

The Defending History community wishes all our readers in Lithuania


celebrating the Lithuanian king’s crowning in 1253. A wonderful modern holiday for all the peoples of Lithuania, and the world, and especially those with roots in the Grand Duchy…

26 June 2020

European Jewish Congress Reports on Ruta Bloshtein’s Petition to Save Old Vilna Jewish Cemetery from Convention Center Project:  51,000 Have Signed to Date 

Local, international opposition growing by the day

25 June 2020

LJC’s Video of Dieckmann-Vanagaite 25 June Book Launch


23 June 2020

Chief Historian of State Sponsored  Genocide Center is Key Speaker at Events Glorifying June 23rd; Evening Event under Banner of Two Holocaust Collaborators

Defending History was there to monitor the events. Julius Norwilla’s photo gallery.

Dr. Arūnas Bubnys, chief historian at the state-sponsored Genocide Center in Vilnius and long-time member of the state-sponsored “International Historical Commission” proudly appears under the banner of two heinous Holocaust collaborators, J.  Noreika and K. Škirpa, at an event glorifying the day, 23 June 1941, that murder and mayhem broke out against the country’s defenseless Jewish citizens.

Škirpa with Hitler in Berlin

23 June 2020

Remembering June 23rd 1941: Why Would Anyone in the EU Want to Celebrate the Outbreak of the Baltic Holocaust under Guise of “Rebellion”?

Outbreak of mass murder, injury, pillage and humiliation of  defenseless Jewish neighbors by  the LAF (Lithuanian Activist Front) and others before arrival of first Nazi forces. Soviet forces were fleeing Hitler’s Operation Barbarossa — not the local Hitler allies. The real heroes of the day are Lithuanians (and Latvians, Estonians, Ukrainians and others) who risked everything to just do the right thing and save a neighbor from these Hitlerist organizations…

Defending History’s section on June 23rd events & issues in previous years. Background on the history. New English edition of Leyb Koniuchowsky’s compendium of testimonies now available online.

Online town hall on European Holocaust Denial is organized in the US. All welcome

Here in Vilnius: Lithuanian parliament (Seimas) schedules 10:30 AM (Vilnius time) press conference. Fears rising that this will be yet another effort to glorify June 23rd and the outbreak of the Lithuanian Holocaust at the hands of the LAF, provisional gov. and assorted other local Hitler allies. Speakers include members of Seimas, Genocide Center and Red-Brown Commission…

Far Right Will Honor Nazi Collaborators on 23rd at 6 PM in central Vilnius. Defending History will be there to monitor the event

Late Spring 2020

Who’s Gonna Welcome Folks to a Convention Center in the Middle of the Old Vilna Jewish Cemetery?

Dramatic Developments for Old Vilna Jewish Cemetery, Still Slated to Become Vilnius Convention Center

Petition by Ruta Bloshtein, Vilnius native and resident, reaches 51,000 signatures. Defending History reports. Bloshtein’s articles.

US Secretary of State Mike Pompeo receives multifaith plea from Christian, Hindu, Jewish, and Muslim leaders and key human rights organizations.

Two new websites launched: Save Vilna (US and Israel) and Respect the Cemetery (Vilnius); Both efforts entail Christian-Jewish (& Lithuanian-Litvak) alliance. Vilnius project announces 14 June public event. Latest report by Andrius Kulikauskas.

Elected chairman of Vilnius Jewish Community, representing vast majority of Lithuania’s Jews, reaffirms VJC’s firm opposition to desecration of the cemetery.

UCSJ joins the endeavor from Washington DC.

Defending History has been on the case for “five long years” and helped inspire international opposition to a convention center that would never be sited in an old cemetery of the majority religion population. See the latest.

TThe Latest


June-July 2020

Will the Lithuanian Defense Ministry add a “health warning” to its page glorifying a Nazi collaborator?

Lithuania’s Defense Ministry magazine glorifies Nazi collaborator and Holocaust cheerleader Kazys Škirpa on its front cover and in a massive article. See reactions from the Lithuanian Jewish Community and G. Gochin’s Times of Israel blog, and Defending HistorySEE OUR REPORT.

Incredibly, the Defense Ministry still flaunts the cover on its website (as PDF).

May 2020

Tale of the “Euronote Vilnius Cemetery”: See DH, JTA, AJ

Disturbing video produced by a national tourism agency

May Day in Vilnius: Three major tourism federations united to finance the covering of the old Vilna Jewish cemetery with empty chairs with symbolic 1000-euro notes pasted on (directly above extant graves), symbolizing the economic loss from not rushing ahead with a convention center in the middle of the cemetery.  The 500 year old cemetery, where thousands of citizens of Vilnius lie buried is not mentioned.

Real or photoshopped?


Solidarity with Minorities in Time of Pandemic?

Some use period for further glorification of Holocaust collaborators; Some tout postcrisis economic renewal from  “Convention Center in the Cemetery” Project in Vilnius

Former foreign minister calls on present FM to renounce views and support state glorification of brutal Holocaust collaborator J. Noreika (after supreme administrative court confirmed during national lockdown the “hero status” of the same collaborator). 

Also: Defense Ministry still adds no disclaimer to its page glorifying Nazi collaborator.


“You can’t make this up”: Major economist headlines construction sector revival via Jewish cemetery’s desecration as panacea for Covid-19 doldrums. Then, major national tourism units unite to place a thousand chairs with symbolic euro-notes on top of Vilnius Jewish graves.

Judith Leister reports in Neue Zürcher ZeitungJulius Norwilla in DH.


For news in Lithuanian, see VieningaLietuva.com


March 2020


VILNIUS + KAUNAS ON 16 FEB: DH eyewitness report on 16 February march in Vilnius. Organizers again targeted DH staff; 16 Feb in central Kaunas.

VILNIUS 11 MARCH: DH’s report on the run-up.  DH’s eyewitness report of the event.

RIGA 16 MARCH:  West silent as central Riga again gifted for worship of Latvia’s wrtime Waffen SS on Monday March 16th;  Coronavirus ban on rallies results in individuals laying wreaths for Waffen SS at city center’s Liberty Monument

February-March 2020

Linas Vildžiūnas, Lithuania’s Leading Humanist, For Decades Key Educator (and Truth Teller) about the Holocaust, Wins Donskis Award for Tolerance

16 February 2020

Defending History Alone Monitored Torchlit Vilnius Old Town Far-Right March that Glorified Nazi Collaborators J. Noreika and K. Škirpa

9 February 2020

Doyen of Litvak Rabbis Signs Impassioned Decree on Saving Old Vilna Jewish Cemetery from “Convention Center in the Cemetery” Project


Alexander Gendler: Khurbm: 1914-1922

Leyb Koniuchowsky & Jonathan Boyarin: The Lithuanian Slaughter of its Jews: Testimonies of 121 Survivors of the Holocaust in Lithuania

Dan Rabinowitz: The Lost Library

Ruta Vanagaite & Efraim Zuroff: Our People: Discovering Lithuania’s Hidden Holocaust

Ruta Vanagaite & Christoph Dieckmann: How Did It Happen? (Our People, Part II. Understanding the Holocaust in Lithuania)

January 2020

Far Right Again Granted Central Vilnius on Feb. 16 Independence Day

They plan to glorify Nazi collaborators ŠkirpaNoreika and Brazaitis

Scene from their 2018 march in the heart of Vilnius (featuring on front banner six Nazi collaborators)…

2018 march in central Vilnius. Photo © DefendingHistory.com

January 2020

European Foundation for Human Rights: Progress in Case for Equal Minority Rights for Old Vilna Jewish Cemetery

For the first time a member of the Lithuanian parliament challenges the wisdom of glorifying (and reconstructing) an ugly Soviet dump that was built on Jewish bones of the centuries. See  Kęstutis Masiulis’s new piece in the Lithuanian media. Also, progress in the Vilnius court case is reported in the media, citing comments from Prof. Josif Parasonis. In the report, Turto Bankas (the state’s “property bank”) falsifies history, claiming the unsightly Soviet ruin is outside the cemetery. In fact, the American Embassy confirmed years ago (see point  5) that it “The Sports Palace property indisputably rests in the middle” of the historic cemetery.

Don’t the people of Lithuania (and Europe) deserve a sparkling new and morally clean Vilnius convention center rather than a Soviet-era structure surrounded by five centuries of Jewish graves?

Clemens Heni in Times of Israel on recent Yad Vashem furore

Matt Rubenstein iThe Battleground EU“Changing the Historical Record” 

David Pugliese in the Ottawa Citizen on East European Glorification of Holocaust Collaborators

Julius Norwilla in Vilnius’s 7MD on Old Vilna Jewish Cemetery

Clemens Heni in Times of Israel on dissident thinkers in Germany

Anna Shternshis in Canadian Jews News on Yivo Librarian Debacle (see also DH’s take; list of items approved by “In geveb”)

23 January 2020

VIDEO: Major Litvak Rabbis in Israel and American Christian Evangelist Meet with Lithuania’s Ambassador to Israel to Plea for Old Vilna Jewish Cemetery 

Late Jan. 2020 meeting follows “day of shame” in Vilnius in Dec. 2019, and “hateful libel” against Orthodox Vilnius Jewish woman (Jan. 2020) who launched the international petition; Prof. Shnayer Leiman’s response.

23 January 2020

JTA on Scandal Emanating from Lithuanian Parliamentarian Gumuliauskas’s Proposed Bill to “Fix” Holocaust History



13 January 2020

Defending History Joins Lithuania in Mourning the Fourteen Unarmed Pro-Independence Protesters Murdered by Soviet Forces on 13 Jan. 1991 

10 January 2020

from Dr. Andrius Kulikauskas’s post in BNS and Vakarų Ekspresas

LRT’s “Panorama” runs report on the Soviet sports palace building (timecode: 21:25—25:20), envisaging “hundreds of millions of euros” and “a bag of gold”

2 January 2020

Israeli and Polish Ambassadors to Ukraine Issue Joint Letter Protesting New State Glorification of Holocaust Perpetrators (T.O.I. report by Sam Sokol)

1 January 2020

Antanas Zubrys and Dr. Matilda Zubrienė: Defending History’s Persons of the Year (2020)

Antanas Zubrys and Matilda Zubrienė

A Lithuanian hero of the War of Independence in 1920, one hundred years ago, who went on in 1941, with his wife, to risk their lives and their families and  just do the right thing and save innocent neighbors from the racial genocide underway and supported by their own nation’s “nationalist leaders”… “Someone has to honor Lithuania’s real World War II heroes.” See background on current practice by some East European governments to honor Nazi collaborators (e.g. Lithuanian parliament’s 2018 decision; DH section). See DH’s Person of the Year awards for 201420152018, and 2019.

Updated Litvak One-Stop Shop for 2020

Year of 300th Birthday of the Gaon of Vilna: novel critical approach of Andrius Kulikauskas’s brand new website on calendar of events. Our editor’s papers & articles.

“7 Kingdoms of the Litvaks” is free online

19 December 2019

A “Day of Shame” in Post-Holocaust East European Jewish History?

The upshot? The state owned property bank claims “Jewish support” for “the convention center in the old Jewish cemetery” via the alleged collusion of some London rabbis from the “CPJCE” and the head of the government sponsored Jewish community… But what about the opinion of all the others?

December 2019

Lithuania, a Genuine, Robust Democracy, Continues to Struggle with Free Speech when it Comes to the Holocaust

See Efraim Zuroff in the Jerusalem PostArkadijus Vinokuras in Times of IsraelInstances from the past decade monitored by DH; Section on free speech and democracy. Dovid Katz’s new paper on the (ab)use of law to “fix history” in the Baltics.

Dr. Andrius Kulikauskas founds major new initiative dedicated to Lithuanian-Jewish friendship and sense of common purpose for future of the Grand Duchy heritage by way of open, free and respectful dialogue and inspiring new projects

Program of 16 Dec. Bar Ilan Univeristy conference on Zuroff-Vanagaite book on the Lithuanian Holocaust; Conference report & photos

Nov.-Dec. 2019

Litvak World Shocked by New “Year of Gaon” 10 Euro Coin that Plonks a Symbol Beloved of Far Right onto a Mutilated Jewish Menorah

Defending History has followed the saga for three years

Ruta Bloshtein in Lithuanian in 7md (6 Dec.2019) [PDF of print edition]

Vilnius’s Jewish satirist Motke Chabad shares his own perspective

Ruta Bloshtein (2 Dec.) and Ben Cohen (28 Nov.) in the Algemeiner Journal

Dovid Katz (15 Nov. and 22 Nov.) and Ruta Bloshtein (26 Nov.) in DH

Grant Gochin in The Times of Israel on other painful issues evoked by “Year of Gaon” plans (also on LJC website); See DH’s Seven Simple Solutions on Lithuanian-Jewish issues

More coverage by Algemeiner JournalArutz ShevaEnlace JudíoHaaretzIsrael National NewsJewish ChronicleJTAYNetYNetEspanol, Times of Israel (ToI French edition)

Is it perhaps an opportune moment for the government to abandon plans for a convention center in the heart of the old Vilna Jewish cemetery, where hundreds of the Gaon’s ancestors and descendants still lie buried? International petition continues to grow.

Autumn 2019

AP on Streets Newly Named in Kiev for Nazi Collaborators

Clemens Heni in Portal for Political Science

Justin Ward in Medium on History Revisionism in Hungary

Andrius Kulikauskas in Bernardinai on Vilnius Jewish Cemetery Saga; Chief Rabbi of South Africa Weighs In; But NY Yivo stages PR event for government’s positions only

Aleksandr Kuzmin in DH on Latvian Defense Minister’s Glorification of Waffen-SS; Jewish Voice on History of Latvian Holocaust

Cnaan Liphshiz in Times of Israel (French) on Holocaust Museums 

George N. Tzogopoulos at Begin-Sadat Center on Israel’s Role; See DH’s Israel Page

23 Sept. 2019

International Coverage of Vilnius’s Day of Prayer, Plea & Protest for the Old Vilna Jewish Cemetery at Piramónt

Dr. Andrius Kulikauskas’s keynote address; Report (+ photo gallery) in Lithuania’s 15min.ltLRT evening news (from timecode 4:56). European Foundation for Human Rights

Letter from South Africa’s chief rabbi to Lithuania’s president

London CPJCE “Jewish grave traders” are called to face charges at the Jerusalem rabbinical court. In London, a “Serious Incident” report is filed with the United Kingdom’s Charity Commission. Background on CPJCE’s Vilnius outrage. The video.

Canadian Govt. Officials “Duped” into Participating in Honors for Ukraine’s OUN / UPA Hitler Collaborators

Reports in National Post and Ottawa Citizen

Defending History’s Take: “Canada, a bastion of enlightened liberalism in today’s world, has blundered into a moral mouse-trap. Hopefully its highest leaders will now rapidly correct the error and join all those around the world who condemn the Nazis and their collaborators’ rampages of ethnic-based mass murder and genocide in World War II era Eastern Europe.”

23 September 2019

Monday September 23 in Vilnius

Day of Prayer and Respectful Challenge to Spare Old Jewish Cemetery at Piramónt (Šnipiškės) from Plans to Site a Convention Center in its Heart

Sign Ruta Bloshtein’s Petition       See the International Support       DH Section

Sept. 2019

A Decade of Defending History

Defending History marks its 10th anniversary in Sept. 2019

9 years ago7 years ago.  5 years ago3 years ago.

Come and browse old issues; first post; mission statement; Samples of coverage over the years by Ricky Ben-David in the Jerusalem Post; Arne Bengtsson in Baltic World; Daniel Brook in Slate; Bernard Dichek in Jerusalem Report; Jonathan Freedland in the Guardian; Avi Friedman in Mishpacha; Cindy Mindell in the Jewish Ledger; Rod Nordland in the New York Times; Wendy Robbins on BBC World Service. 

Documentary films: Danny Ben-Moshe’s Rewriting History; Richard Bloom’s Defending Holocaust History


9 Sept. 2019

Vilnius is Shamed by Brand New Noreika Plaque Glorifying a Holocaust Collaborator

Calls for government to rapidly “do the right thing: take it down”

Thursday 5 September:  Crowd glorifying Holocaust collaborator screams “Noreika” as new plaque is affixed on public space in central Vilnius. Photo: J. Stecevičius/LRT

Reports in Delfi.lt;   Lrt.lt;   15min.lt

Vilnius mayor calls plaque “illegal”Faina Kukliansky issues powerful statement of protestBNS; Baltic Times reports that sciences library is quite happy with its new plaque; JTA report

So far, a wall of public  silence from the “Yiddish-loving culture minister“, from  Yivo, and from the Western and Israeli embassies in Lithuania

Defending History’s take: “A very sad day for Lithuania and its proud ages-old  tradition of Grand Duchy tolerance and its current record as a successful democracy. Ten years after Defending History published images of the plaque honoring Noreika, seven years after Evaldas Balciunas brought the issue to the English speaking world, and one month after Vilnius’s bold mayor boldly had the plaque removed, a mob of antisemites who celebrate the Holocaust’s perpetrators have put up an even shinier plaque, rapidly declared to be illegal by the mayor. The text of the new plaque is rather worse from the viewpoint of historic honesty, by referring to Noreika’s imprisonment by the Nazis at one point (the phenomenon of “Holocaust envy”), as if that makes a hero of a brutal Holocaust collaborator. Lithuania’s great people deserve better! Hopefully, the nation’s highest powers will remove the plaque without further delay, in the name of the rule of law, the nation’s standing, and basic human decency. See DH’s sections on:  J. NoreikaCollaborators Glorified; the 2019 midsummer events that presaged the latest events.  

August 2019

Bravo to Hizzoner Vilnius Mayor Remigijus Šimašius

Sam Sokol in JTA

Jillian Deutsch in Politico

Deutsche Welle

Vilna Jewish Cemetery Petition Hits 46,000 Mark

Lithuanian Jewish Community Reports on State Investigation of “Red-Brown Commission” Chief (background; video)

Vilna-born Holocaust survivor Prof. Pinchos Fridberg’s “enormous courage” in challenging “perpetrator whitewashing” by nationalist icon V. Landsbergis

Prof. Pinchos Fridberg  ©DefendingHistory.com

See Pinchos Fridberg section; DH’s 2012 take on LandsbergisMeanwhile, controversial official head of gov. sponsored Jewish community, eminent attorney Ms. Faina Kukliansky, wins acclaim for (finally) standing up to Landsbergis, after he used crude anti-Jewish ethnic slur on FB; Baltic Times features a rude reply with no pretense of evenhanded journalism. EU Health Commissioner Vytenis Andriukaitis speaks out (see DH’s Andriukaitis section, and his classic statements on the Seventy Years Declaration and the reburial of wartime Nazi puppet prime minister in 2012).

Polish government glorifies unit that fought for the Nazis

Prominent Vilnius historian publishes article in mainstream media complaining that too many “foreign Jews” have been included in the state-sponsored history commission

9 Aug. 2019

Ten years after Defending History published images of the plaques. Seven years after DH’s Evaldias Balčiūnas brought the case of J. Noreika to the English speaking world. Four years after Dr. Andrius Kulikauskas‘s classic DH essay on K. Škirpa: 

Vilnius Mayor Remigijus Šimašius Leads City Council Decision to Rename “Škirpa Street” and Personally Orders Removal of Noreika Plaque in 4 AM Raid

Official Lithuanian Jewish Community Closes Premises and Synagogue on  6-8 Aug. in View of Threats, Citing Conservative Party’s Ongoing Campaign to Glorify Holocaust Collaborators

At Aug. 7 central Vilnius rally in support of continued glorification of Holocaust collaborators. Sign at left: “Stop Judaeophile vandalism”. Poster at right asks if it is still Lithuania or already the Northern Jerusalem…


Statement issued by Vilnius Jewish Community;  JTA reports of 6. Aug; 7 Aug; 8 Aug (+TOI); LJC’s circulated reply to VJC

Baltic Times gives big-time coverage to Landsbergis’s attack on official Jewish community leader Kukliansky. Will they provide equal space for the community’s response?

Aug. 7 rally demanded restoration of public space plaques and street names that glorify Holocaust collaborators held at Mindaugas Monument; Baltic Times’s “shamefully one-sided” report in far right spirit of trivializing glorification of Holocaust perpetrators


Poster advertising Aug. 7th rally blasts mayor who took action against glorification of collaborators, shows Jewish and gay pride symbols as the culprits

Photoshopped version of painting by F. Reshetnikov depicts several boys observing what seems like a Jewish-LGBT event from around the corner. Text at top reads “Škirpa and Vėtra [Noreika] are heroes of Lithuania”. The lower text depicts a rooster (“gaidys” in Lithuanian, used as a homophobic slur) and is labeled “Šimašius”, i.e., the current Mayor of Vilnius Remigijus Šimašius who recently led efforts to remove public glorification of two Holocaust collaborators.  Text at bottom: “Let’s defend the heroes of Lithuania! Rally under the Mayor’s windows, by the monument of King Mindaugas. August 7 (Wed.), from 18:00 to 19:30.”

Question: Will the Roskies & Fishman “Yiddish PR conference” financed to deflect attention from the painful issues, publish a morally clear statement of protest (and support for the Jewish community)? Do conference participants appreciate concerns they are being used as “useful Jewish idiots” (UJIs) in the wider effort to rewrite Holocaust history and cover for blatant antisemitism?

Are they aware of the systematic exclusion from their conference of all the local Jewish scholars in this field who have expressed disagreement with the glorification of Holocaust collaborators (including Holocaust survivors who have written about Jewish Vilna)? Will they consider signing Ruta Bloshtein’s petition on the old Vilna Jewish cemetery?

BACKGROUND: See DH sections on collaborators glorifiedNoreika saga; Ramanauskas saga; seven Lithuanian-Jewish issues that could be easily resolved; academic background. the Seventy Years Declaration (SYD). signed by 71 European parliamentarians including eight valiant Lithuanian MPs and MEPs.

1 August 2019

“It Pays to Defend History”

Vilnius Mayor Remigijus Šimašius Orders Removal of Memorial Plaque for Holocaust Collaborator J. Noreika

According to reports, city’s removal squad came 4 AM on 27 July; see now: the nationalist backlash (2); new president falls back on “more discussions needed” ignoring years of such discussions.  JTA report. Vilnius prosecutors considering challenges to mayor’s action. Vilnius’s Prof. Pinchos Fridberg takes the battle  over glorifying Hitler collaborators right to Vytautas Landsbergis. Meanwhile, Conservative Party’s Landsbergis Jr. hits back and official Jewish community exposes antisemitic slur on his FB page.

Vilnius mayor Remigijus Šimašius

A seven year saga since Defending History’s Evaldas Balčiūnas brought the Noreika case to the English speaking world in 2012

Lithuanian author & ethicist Evaldas Balčiūnas

For years Mr. Balčiūnas was hounded by police, prosecutors and kangaroo hearings (scroll down to May 2014)

Over the years, Defending History’s campaign won support from the Simon Wiesenthal Center; the Rambam Mesivta High School that staged a peaceful demonstration at Lithuania’s consulate in New York; Noreika’s granddaughter, American author Silvia Foti; and Californian Litvak scion Grant Gochin, who took Vilnius’s “Genocide Center” to court. The GC’s public statement revealed its true view on the Holocaust. Dr. Andrius Kulikauskas is curator of online Captain Noreika Museum.

Follow the mayor’s impressive personal trajectory on these issues over the years

Marble Noreika stone continues to mar capital’s central boulevard


The mayor will hopefully soon speak out on fate of Old Vilna Jewish Cemetery, slated to become a convention center, that would damage Vilnius’s brand for generations  to come. Vilnius native Ruta Bloshtein’s petition now has over 46,000 signatures from every part of the world.

24 July 2019

Vilnius City Council Finally Decides to Change Name of Škirpa Street

Vote is  20 to 16

Defending History brought the issue to the international community in 2010

See Dr. Andrius Kulikauskas’s classic 2015 Defending History paper on Škirpa; Vilnius City Council efforts by Mark Harold

Report by JTA

Prof. Pinchos Fridberg and Ruta Kaplinskaya concerned by report that new street name will be accompanied by new plaque glorifying Škirpa yet again

Škirpa is in the middle (Berlin, 1941)

Changing toxic street names that glorify Hitler collaborators is high on the list of the very easy things Lithuania needs to do to achieve justice on the irksome history issues that will just not go away. See DH’s seven solutions compiled with the help of the late Dr. Shimon Alperovich.

But what about Škirpa Street in Kaunas, which is slated to be “Capital of European Culture” in 2022?

July 2019

Ukraine’s Constitutional Court Affirms “Red Equals Brown” Law

Radio Free Europe (Radio Liberty) report fails to inform readers of the Double Genocide issues and abuse of history to further far-right Holocaust revisionism that includes glorification of Holocaust collaborators






June-July 2019

More Lithuanian Government Glories & Medals for “Useful Jewish Enablers” of Baltic Holocaust Revisionism

June 2019

California Resident Grant Gochin Appeals Vilnius Court Ruling that Whitewashed Notorious Holocaust Collaborator Jonas Noreika

IHRA weighs inMore reaction.  For first time (?), Lithuanian TV presents both sides.

The Question: Will an EU/NATO democracy continue to sink government funds into  glorification of Holocaust collaborators? Don’t the Lithuanian people have higher values and causes into which to invest their hard-earned taxpayer money?


23 June 2019

Kaunas (Slated to be 2022 “Capital of European Culture”)  Hosts Far-Right (/Neo-Nazi) City Center Jamboree Honoring June 23 “Uprising” that Unleashed the Destruction of Lithuanian Jewry in 1941

In Vilnius, the parliament (Seimas) hosts a one-sided conference on the LAF (Lithuanian Ativist Front) Hitlerist militias that unleashed violence on Jewish neighbors before German forces even arrived.

Meanwhile, a naive article in National Review accepts the distorted history of Vilnius’s “Genocide Museum” (see our critique of the museum), that calls the Hitlerist  “Lithuanian Activist Front” (LAF)’s outbreak of violence against Jewish neighbors a  rebellion against the Soviets. The brutal Soviet occupation forces were fleeing Hitler’s invasion (the largest in human history), not the LAF Jew-killers.

These killers didn’t fire a single shot against the Soviets when they were in power. You can’t “rebel” against someone who is in panic running away from someone else. . . The Holocaust is being rewritten by the East European far right (in part to make heroes out of the Eastern European collaborators) even as leaders of major Jewish organization in the US and elsewhere remain silent.

16 June 2019

The Good Old Pattern Continues in Biržai (Birzh), Northern Lithuania:

A magnificent new memorial to thousands of Holocaust victims at the mass grave in the forest.

Honors, medals and photo-ops for the foreign donors and enablers.

The official museum in the city center continues to honor Holocaust collaborators and perpetrators as “national heroes”, an issue not mentioned at any of the public events.

June 2019

State Glorification for Chaplain of a Holocaust-era Mass Murder Unit;  Simon Wiesenthal Center Speaks Out


Chone Leibovich of Vilnius Jewish Community appeals to National Coalition Supporting Eurasian Jewry (scroll down for English)

May-June 2019

A Sad Story for Chicago and Lithuania

that is ‘not going away’

UPDATE OF JUNE 1: Head of Jewish Agency calls for  monument to Nazi collaborator to be removed “as soon as possible”

In Vilnius, Defending History staff get more death threats

First monument on American soil glorifying a wartime Nazi collaborator who is also a prime icon for his country’s neo-Nazis today was inaugurated last month (May 4) in the presence of the visiting Lithuanian foreign minister

LATEST MEDIA: Algemeiner; BBC; GrayzoneIndependent; Simon Wiesenthal CenterTelegraph. And—Defending History’s take.

On Ramanauskas’s Holocaust-era role see courageous, pioneering articles of Lithuanian ethicist Evaldas Balčiūnas in 20142017 and his latest that has just appeared. For years after starting his series of articles “Why does the state commemorate murderers?” Balčiūnas was hounded by prosecutors and police (scroll to May 2014).




Beyond the debates over Ramanauskas’s role in the early days of the Lithuanian Holocaust, he is today  a major icon for Neo-Nazi parades and events.

From left to right on the neo-Nazis’ “We know our national heroes” banner (torchlit neo-Nazi parade of Feb. 2018): Adolfas Ramanauskas-Vanagas,  Jonas Noreika,  Povilas Plechavičius,  Kazys Škirpa,  Antanas Baltūsis-Žvejas, and Juozas Ambrazevičius-Brazaitis

Latest far-right death threats  against DH editor appear on Facebook (as PDF; transl.). They were apparently instigated by the  neo-Nazis’ top blogger in Lithuania, “Zeppelinus”  (PDF; part transl.) who is said to work in the Ministry of the Economy. These threats came in response to DH’s opinion that Lithuania’s interests are not best served by a monument in Chicago to an alleged Holocaust collaborator who is also a prime icon for today’s neo-Nazi parades here. Samples of Zeppelinus’s racist, misogynistic, homophobic, antisemitic output of hate. Some of his earlier “artwork” on DH editor. 

This monument, honoring Adolfas Ramanauskas (Vanagas), who boasted in his memoirs of leading an LAF unit of fascist Hiterlist militia during the first weeks of the Holocaust (June-July 1941) in southeastern Lithuania, was overwhelmingly rejected for placement on public land by New Britian, Connecticut one year ago.  But on Saturday, 4 May  it was inaugurated by Lithuania’s foreign minister on the private property of the Lithuanian World Center in Chicago, Illinois. The English news release casually omits the reference to the Holocaust  issues cited in the original BNS Lithuanian report

On the legacy of Ramanauskas, see Evaldas Balčiūnas (in 20142017 and 2019); Efraim Zuroff and the Simon Wiesenthal Center; and Dovid Katz. Defending History documented the entire 2017-2018 New Britain, Conn. saga. Sampling of survivor testimony on “what it was that the LAF was doing” in the last week of June 1941.  SEE DEFENDING HISTORY’S SECTION ON ADOLFAS RAMANAUSKAS.

Defending History’s take: “The people of Chicago, and its proud Lithuanian and Litvak communities, should not have foisted on them a monument glorifying an alleged Holocaust collaborator who led a Hitlerist militia in the early days of the Holocaust, a monument that was overwhelmingly rejected by the New Britain, Connecticut city council one year ago. And, most certainly not without a free, public and transparent process of dialogue and consultation including Holocaust survivors and their families, as well as scholars and institutions representing a diversity of opinions. A one-year moratorium is called for to enable such a process to proceed with dignity.”

3 May 2019

Latest on State Honors for Holocaust Collaborator J. Noreika in Lithuania




28 April 2019



As addendum to EFHR’s  case filed; international opposition; petition reaching 46,000 mark

Recent coverage in the Algemeiner Journal; English Delfi.lt (Lithuania Tribune); Jerusalem Post;


Protest letter from Julius Norwilla, chairman of the Vilnius Committee for Preservation of Piramont (Snipiskes) Cemetery to the Director of the Čiurlionis House and Museum


Thousands (in groups of 25) were misinformed by guides’  prepared text assurance that convention center is with permission of “European Jewish Community in 2016” (!). Soviet kitsch was praised effusively in latest ruse to turn hated Soviet dump into “a national treasure”. Rabbi S. J. Feffer confronts one of the groups with a heartfelt speech of protest informing visitors of the “wanton theft of our forefathers’ graves” and blessing those who will help stop the travesty from moving forward.


Meanwhile in London, a Serious Incident Report has been filed with the UK’s national Charity Commission requesting an investigation of the role of the CPJCE in the destruction of the Old Vilna Jewish Cemetery.

Unique study in body language: “blockbuster video” of London CPJCE staff allegedly morally selling other people’s graves against the rulings of all the rabbis of Vilnius and of the planet.  In fact, when the then chief rabbi of Lithuania, Rabbi Chaim Burshtein, spoke up in 2015, he was fired for expressing his views. Views of Rabbi S.J. Feffer (leading Litvak religious authority in the country) and Rabbi S.B. Krinsky (official rabbi of the synagogue / Chabad Lithuania).

The Wikileaks cable that just will not go away (jump to end of point 8)

Ruta Bloshtein’s petition approaches 46,000

Overviews by  Shnayer Leiman, Juris KažaMichael Maass, Dovid Katz, and Vilna-born Holocaust survivor Pinchos Fridberg; Statements by elected head of Vilnius Jewish Community Simon Gurevich


24 April 2019

Granddaughter of Holocaust perpetrator J. Noreika, the American author and educator Silvia Foti launches a bold international petition calling on Lithuania’s gov. to stop glorifying him.



23 April 2019

“The rights of minority cemeteries are human rights”

Legal Action Underway on Attempts to Pilfer Old Vilna Jewish Cemetery for National Convention Center




8 April 2019

Vilnius Plaque Glorifying Holocaust Collaborator J. Noreika is Smashed by Maverick Candidate for the European Parliament, Attorney Stanislavas Tomas

All on film, streamed live Monday morning 8 April 2019, from candidate’s bilingual statements through to his calling the police and their eventual arrival to make the arrest


(plaque smashing at 14:30; English segments at 04:10; 22:40)

Defending History’s comment:

“We unequivocally condemn violent acts against any property. Plaques can and will be replaced, and acts of property violence are totally illegal, inherently unethical, and utterly counterproductive to the noble cause of ridding Europe of glorification of Nazism. There needs to be dignified, peaceful and lawful civic and international pressure for the removal of all state-sponsored, public-space glorification of Holocaust collaborators, not least in Lithuania where some 96% of the Jewish population was massacred with massive local collaboration and participation. The real heroes are the amazing Lithuanians who risked everything in 1941 to just save a neighbor and we pray for the day when plaques and streets for them will abound across the land. See our own Person of the Year for 2018 and 2019.”

On Jonas Noreika’s Holocaust activities, see Evaldas Balčiūnas and Andrius Kulikauskas

Samples of other monuments and street names glorifying Holocaust collaborators.  DH section on glorification of collaborators. The major Noreika monument in Vilnius is actually the engraved marble stone on the city’s central Gedimino Boulevard outside the Genocide Museum:

8 April 2019

Andrius Kulikauskas calls on Lithuanian Parliament to Stand Up to State-Sponsored Genocide Center’s Glorification of Holocaust Collaborators

Dovid Katz interviewed by Stan Tomas (video)

World Jewish Congress Replies to Vilnius Genocide Center; Stops Short of Mentioning Government’s Financing of Street Names and Honors for Holocaust Perpetrators; Official Jewish Community Breaks Long Silence on GC’s Antisemitism

3 April 2019

Eyewitness Report: A Verdict is Read in a Vilnius Court

Case was over the state’s glorification of a cruel Holocaust collaborator and purveyor of racial hate. First time a court in an EU/NATO country ruled in favor of the government glorifying Holocaust collaborators with street names and majestic public plaques, reducing the Holocaust to a detail not worthy of interfering with its perpetrators’ “heroism”…

Verdict came down on 27 March. Since then: utter silence from the US, UK and Israeli embassies in Vilnius, and from the “Red-Brown” Commission (which has affiliations with the Genocide Center) and its foreign members representing Yivo and the American Jewish Committee. But on April 3rd, the World Jewish Congress issued a major statement, to some extent avoiding the current issue of state glorification of Holocaust perpetrators via street names and plaques.

At 1 PM on Wed. March 27th, a Vilnius Administrative Court judge read out the court’s ruling dismissing the query of US resident Grant Gochin over Lithuania’s state glorification of Nazi collaborator Jonas Noreika, active during the Holocaust in the region where Gochin lost around 100 relatives. The court said Mr. Gochin had no material interest, ruled that the state-sponsored Genocide Center had answered his query completely, without bias, and without abuse of power, in effect further enshrining in law an EU/NATO state’s glorification of Holocaust collaborators and perpetrators via the financing of ultranationalist and far-right history centers and departments determined to preserve the national hero status of Holocaust collaborators. Whenever government or municipal officials are asked about the numerous street names and plaques honoring collaborators, the invariable answer is that it is all in fact a matter for the experts at the Genocide Center.

Mr. Gochin’s academic specialist, Dr. Andrius Kulikauskas was on hand along with attorney Rokas Rudzinskas. Of the Genocide Center’s staff, only historian Dr. Arūnas Bubnys turned up, sitting in the small gallery surrounded in part by first and second generation Holocaust survivors who turned out to hear the verdict that the Western embassies, human rights organization and official (state-sponsored) Jewish community thought not worth sending an official representative to hear. By contrast the local Vilnius Jewish Community had two observers on hand.

UPDATES: Genocide Center releases statement; official Jewish community issues reply.

JTA report is picked up by some Israeli papers but not one major American media outlet, general or Jewish… Why is that?

A moment before the courtroom clock strikes 1 PM: Genocide Center’s chief historian Dr. Arūnas Bubnys (front row third from right) was the only GC official to come and hear the verdict.



26 March 2019

Vilnius Court’s Verdict Awaited on Wednesday March 27th

Public welcome at the reading of the verdict at 1 PM at Vilnius Regional Administrative Court, Žygimantų 2 in the city center

Will a court in an EU/NATO country uphold a far-right Holocaust-obfuscating institution’s decision to make a national hero of a documented Holocaust collaborator?

See: Background. Report on 15 Jan. Report on 5 March.

Meanwhile, Bizarre Decision from EU Court of Human Rights in Strasbourg is in Spirit of Far Right’s “Double Genocide” Revisionism

“The New Holocaust Denial is based on a postmodernist mush that confounds victims and perpetrators and tries to write the Holocaust out of history (without denying a single death) via an array of ruses emanating from Eastern Europe’s ultranationalist New Far Right.”


DH’s take. Report on 15 Jan. hearing. Report on 5 March hearing. Evaldas Balčiūnas’s 2012 article that brought Noreika to the attention of the English speaking world. Balčiūnas’s DH section.

25 March 2019

Michael Mostyn in the Toronto Sun

Reports on pro-Nazi marches in Vilnius and Riga; Canada condemns Riga’s Waffen SS celebration

English original of part of Lithuanian TV’s interview with Dovid Katz

20 March 2019

Vilnius Jewish Community Invites People of All Backgrounds to Purim Celebration with Traditional Reading of the Book of Esther

Wednesday evening, 20 March, at 7 PM, at the Vilnius Jewish Community & Jewish Cultural and Information Center at Mesiniu 3 in Vilnius Old Town

VJC’s additional family event features the traditional costume party competition on Thursday evening 21st

Just for Litvaks: Translation of the Book of Esther into Lithuanian Yiddish

16 March 2019


DPA;  HaaretzJerusaem Post;  Jüdisches Forum (video)Times of Israel

Detail from the day

Petition against annual event approaches 7,000 signatures

Background: Monica Lowenberg’s blog; DH coverage of previous years’ marches; Lowenberg’s articles in DH; Latvia section. Can people peacefully protest this march? A disturbing court ruling 

Latvian participant in last month’s torchlight march in Vilnius on 16 Feb.

13 March 2019

More Double Dealing by US Taxpayer Supported “Commission to Preserve America’s Heritage Abroad” (USCPAHA)?

Is it Washington DC’s most corrupt federal agency?

Are they really in cahoots with the allegedly corrupt bodies (CPJCE in London, “Admas Kodesh” or “AK” in NY) who gave “permission” for a convention center in the heart of the old Vilna Jewish Cemetery against the views of all other rabbis and ethicists? The NY branch (AK) has published crude personal invective against scholars who hold other opinions, including Prof. Bernard Fryshman (who has now taken USCPAHA to the courts).

VIDEO: Herbert Block’s formal new presentation to a major rabbi cites only USCPAHA’s partnership with these two bodies. No mention of the international petition (which he himself signed…) or the vast international opposition.

Tale of two videos: The CPJCE with the prime minister of Lithuania, and USCPAHA’s Herbert Block explaining his commission’s work to the rabbi in Israel . . . See also earlier Admas Kodesh photo gallery of USCPAHA “reporting to Satmar Rebba in Monroe”… (Note: Leader of the opposing Satmar dynasty has himself condemned the convention center project in Vilnius).


The basic story (DH’s section). International opposition to date. The USCPAHA. The CPJCE.

8 March 2019

After ‘Hearing Both Sides’ at Trial of March  5th, Vilnius Court Sets Verdict for 27th

Dr. Andrius Kulikauskas, moments before his historic address before the Vilnius court on state-funded Genocide Center’s policy of glorifying Holocaust collaborators. The center’s “decisions” are cited by high officials as “justification” for street names, university hall plaques and other public-space state-funded glorifications of Holocaust collaborators. Around 96% of Lithuanian Jewry was massacred in the Holocaust.

Defending History was there. Our take:

Andrius Kulikauskas will go down in history not only as the hero of the day but as the true patriot of Lithuania whose love for his country is not infected by Holocaust obfuscation and the glorification of Holocaust perpetrators but by a pursuit of simple historic truth. By contrast, the Genocide Center’s shameful performance illustrated, as ever, why the government should not be using taxpayer or EU funds for a far-right ultranationalist Holocaust-obfuscating entity that disparages the freedom of Lithuanian citizens to have diverse opinions (by dictating fake history as per the Soviet playbook) and continues to damage Lithuania’s name in the world (East European democracies need state glorification of Holocaust collaborators like a hole in the head).

Evaldas Balčiūnas, whose 2012 article brought the case to international attention, was in attendance. Icing on the cake was the Genocide Center’s demand that the videographer leave at the outset. So much for government sponsorship of an open and transparent operation. There were close to 20 observers, mostly Vilnius Jewish personalities there in an individual capacity, including Prof. Pinchos Fridberg, who figured in a New York Times article on the subject last September. Elected Vilnius Jewish Community head Simon Gurevich, committed elsewhere, nevertheless made two brief appearances to show moral support for those who stand up to glorification of collaborators and to the community members in attendance. The VJC hosted Dr. Kulikauskas on Jan 14th.

“It had the air of a 21st century Lithuanian version of America’s Scopes Monkey Trial.”

Eyewitness reports and opinions by Evaldas Balčiūnas and Gershon Taic (Geršonas Taicas)

Finally, reports began to appear in mainstream Lithuanian media: BNS/Diena.lt; LRTDelfi; Alkas.lt; Arkadijus Vinokuras in Delfi.lt. Official information on the court’s website.

Background: Run-up to eve of the trial

California Financial Planner Takes Lithuania’s State-Sponsored “Genocide Center” to Court on March 5th for Enabling Gov. Glorification of Holocaust Collaborator J. Noreika

   Proceedings are open to the public (Tuesday March 5th, 10 AM at Vilnius Regional Administrative Court at Žygimantų 2 in central Vilnius). Media to date includes the BBC World ServiceChicago TribuneJTA. The plaintiff is California wealth advisor Grant Arthur Gochin whose family lost around 100 relatives in the Holocaust in the area where Noreika operated. He will be represented in Vilnius by attorney Rokas Rudzinskas and specialist Dr. Andrius Kulikauskas, author of the Query that launched the case. He has a compelling letter of support from Noreika’s granddaughter, American educator and author Silvia Foti. See Ms. Foti’s remarkable 2018 essay in Salon, and the recent takes by Grant Gochin, Dovid Katz, Andrius Kulikauskas, and Efraim Zuroff.

  The case of J. Noreika was brought to the English speaking world in 2012 by journalist and ethicist Evaldas Balčiūnas of Šiauliai (Shavl), Lithuania, as part of a series of articles asking why his government honors alleged Holocaust collaborators. He was “rewarded” with years of prosecutorial and police harassment and kangaroo trials. Please scroll down to May 2014 in DH’s Balčiūnas section. In some opinions, Lithuania is a totally free-speech country with the marked exception of Holocaust history.



BACKGROUND: Collaborators glorified; street names and university lecture halls; the Genocide Center in Vilnius; the Genocide Museum; academic background to the “Double Genocide” movement for Holocaust revisionism

March 2019

Lev Golinkin in The Nation on Ukraine’s issues with adulation of fascism and Holocaust collaborators

David Pugliese in the Ottawa Citizen on Latvian and Ukrainian projects to revise history

Petition against Waffen SS March on March 16th in Riga; Background: Monica Lowenberg’s blog; DH coverage of previous years’ marches; Lowenberg’s articles in DH; Can people peacefully protest this march? A disturbing court ruling in 2017

Euronews report on far right’s march in central Tallinn, Estonia

Julius Norwilla attends meeting of Lithuania’s state property bank that plans convention center in heart of the Old Vilna Jewish Cemetery

Vilnius: LRT TV interviews Dovid Katz

20 February 2019


Fania Yocheles Brantsovsky, Legendary Jewish Partisan who Fought the Nazis in the Forests of Lithuania, Currently Major Yiddish Culture Educator, Will be Guest of Honor at Today’s Yiddish Reading Circle

Fania Brantsovsky (left) with the late Dr. Rokhl Margolis (1921-2015) in Vilnius in 2007


Photo gallery of the event


16 February 2019


“Once again, it becomes clear how Defending History is the true friend of Lithuania and other democratic states in the Eastern EU that need glorification of Holocaust collaborators like a hole in the head”

DH’s Vilnius monitors, observing the event for a decade, report on “significant progress”: For the first time in many years, the far-right February 16 march, though at times noxious (e.g. when a group reveled in a “Noreika plaque photo-op”), had no visible banners glorifying local Holocaust collaborators and no visible swastikas on flags, and no organized chants of “Lietuva Lietuviams” (Lithuania for Lithuanians). By contrast, a few Latvian visitors wore jackets emblazoned with “Waffen SS”. At its conclusion, two of the march’s organizers approached our team for a civil discussion which turned to the participation of “non-Catholic & non-ethnic Lithuanians” in the war of independence leading to the rise of the democratic interwar Lithuanian Republic on 16 Feb. 1918.

Vilnius Authorities Again Gifting Capital’s Storied Old Town for Far-Right March on Cherished Independence Day

Are they celebrating the Holocaust and the massacre of Lithuanian Jewry?

Last year’s neo-Nazi event featured front banner glorifying a series of local Holocaust collaborators; it was addressed by a high Catholic Church official and “honored guest” neo-Nazis from abroad

2018 lead banner: “WE KNOW WHO OUR NATION’S HEROES ARE”. The “sanitized” event in central Vilnius featured a lead banner glorifying six Nazi collaborators, five of them deeply implicated in the Lithuanian Holocaust. The torchlit march, the day’s final event, made its way from Vilnius’s most sacred Catholic shrine down through the Old City, culminating at a street named for one of the collaborators who had advocated “only” ethnic cleansing of the country’s Jewish minority in 1941. PHOTO: © DEFENDING HISTORY.

Come and join Defending History’s monitoring team. Event scheduled to start Saturday 16 February 6 PM at Aušros Vartų. Facebook details; website.

See Defending History’s decade-long eyewitness coverage of far-right marches in Vilnius, Kaunas, and Riga.


A Short History Lesson:

All of interwar Lithuania’s 239 Jewish communities (massacred in 1941) cherished and celebrated February 16th with heart and soul. They were proud Lithuanian citizens. It was also their Independence Day. See the 2013 letter from the late Joe Melamed, longtime elected leader of the Association of Lithuanian Jews in Israel, and any of countless records and pictures. Here, a photo (with bilingual Hebrew and Lithuanian handwritten captions) of the Jews of Dorbyán (Darbėnai) celebrating February 16th 1928, the tenth anniversary of independence:

30 January 2019

AP Report on Netanyahu Government’s Alleged “Sale of Holocaust History” in Eastern Europe is carried by New York Times, Washington Post, & Israel’s Haaretz & YNet

See Israel Chronicle summary page; Israel section; Sam Sokol’s new paper.

Related: Matti Friedman’s New York Times op-ed on the politicization of Yad Vashem. Cf. Danny Ben-Moshe’s earlier op-ed in Jerusalem Report. See Defending History’s Yad Vashem section.

Highpoints of Israeli diplomacy on the Holocaust in Eastern Europe: Ambassador Chen Ivri Apter in 2009; Ambassador Joel Lion in 2018.

Lowpoint: Ambassador Amir Maimon in 2017 (his performance made it into the academic literature before he was even transferred to his next posting).

27 January 2019

Holocaust Remembrance Week 2019

In recent times, the greatest threat to Holocaust Remembrance Day is the Double Genocide Holocaust revisionist movement whose “constitution” is the 2008 Prague Declaration. Defending History is proud to have taken part in the Europarliamentary response, the 2012 Seventy Years Declaration. The relevance of all this to Holocaust Remembrance Day was made crystal clear nine years ago by Yehuda Bauer on the pages of the Jerusalem Post. See also the essay by Holocaust survivor and scholar, and former director of Yad Vashem, Dr. Yitzhak Arad,  in Defending History. Identity Films has just made available free online its 2012 documentary Rewriting History. Richard Bloom Productions has done the same for its 2013 film, Defending Holocaust History.

William Echikson’s new report on how European countries are treating their Holocaust history

Coverage of the report in Politico.eu; Grant Arthur Gochin’s blog in The Times of Israel.

26 January 2019

Vilma Fiokla Kiurė:

Why do Authorities Choose to Evict Roma in the Middle of the Baltic Winter?


24 January 2019

“The rights of minority cemeteries to be left in peace are human rights”

Two Visualizations of a Convention Center in the Middle of Vilna’s  Old Jewish Cemetery

I: Lithuania’s State Bank (“Turto Bankas”) triumphantly issues its latest visualization for a national convention center  in the heart of the old Vilna Jewish cemetery, surrounded by thousands of Jewish graves. The huge new annex is “artfully” obscured (at the back).

2: Defending History issues its reply visualization. The people of Vilnius deserve a sparkling new convention center that will be a pride to all peoples everywhere, where they will be greeted by leaders of the arts, culture, music, politics, not by the tens of thousands of ghosts of the Jews of Vilna whose families purchased their burial plots in perpetuity. Join the 45,000 people who have signed Ruta Bloshtein’s international petition.


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“Books in the Works”

by Dovid Katz




Publishers and/or literary agents with an interest in any of the following are invited to contact the author.


The Plot to Write the Holocaust Out of History (without denying a single death)

or: The New Holocaust Denial

The US, NATO, the EU and Israel: A Tilt Toward (East European) Holocaust Denial

On The Road in the Old Country: Memoirs of Journeys to the Last Yiddish Mohicans in the Litvak Lands. Vol I: The Last Shtetl Jews. Vol II: In the Erstwhile Cities of Yiddish.

Note: A draft of volume 1 was completed years ago, but never published. The late Professor Arthur Hertzberg wrote a preface.

A Cultural Grammar of Yiddish

(extensive revision of 1987 grammar)

99 Yiddish Words: A Linguistic, Cultural and Political History

Yiddish Cultural Dictionary: An English-Yiddish Lexicon

in progress online

A Short History of Yiddish

Tale of a Brooklyn Yiddishist (Safad; Brooklyn; Manhattan; London; Oxford; Belarus; New Haven; Vilnius; Wales; Internetland)

Vilnius Jewish Culture

(folio volume on the scale of Lithuanian Jewish Culture, 2nd edition Baltos Lankos: Vilnius 2010)

A Litvak’s (Politically Incorrect) Guide to Modern Vilnius

A Dictionary of Ashkenazic Hebrew

in progress online

Normativism Gone Wrong: The Disaster of Postwar Yiddish Language Planning

ALSO: Urgently looking for a publisher or agent to enable a new edition of Words on Fire: The Unfinished Story of Yiddish, Basic Books: New York 2004, 2nd edition 2007. It has gone out of print with rights reverting to the author.


Fifth collection of short stories set in pre World War I Jewish Lithuania. [previous books]

Translation of the Bible into Lithuanian Yiddish

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Responsa in Yiddish Linguistics

Dovid Katz 2023                           Yiddish Linguistics ©


ממני הירשע⸗דוד כ″ץ המכונה הירשע⸗דוד מעינקעס וגם דוד קאַץ. בן לאביו ידידו ומורו מעינקע קאַץ ז″ל. הדר לע″ע בווילנא ברחוב אלכסנדאָווסקע. והתחיל בהן לאחר חנוכה תשע″ו. והמען לשלוח את השאלות:



ואלן הן:

א. צום מהלך צווישן ליטווישן יידיש ביזן צפון⸗מערבדיקן יידיש לויטן אײַנדרוק פונעם מערבדיקן צוהערער. צוגעשיקט: פּראָפעסאָר שניאור לײַמאַן (ברוקלין, נ.י.)

ב. צו די פריסטע ראיות צום פאַראַן⸗זײַן פונעם ליטווישן דיאַלעקט. צוגעשיקט: פּראָפעסאָר שאול שטאַמפּער (ירושלים)

ג. צו די באַמערקונגען פון אַ רב פון באַברויסק און נאַוואַרעדאָק וועגן דעם אַז מען דאַרף אין קריאת שמע מבחין זײַן צווישן א און ע; צווישן ס, שׂ און תֿ. צוגעשיקט: אדם אריאל (נ.י.)

ד. וועגן זלמן רייזענס צוגאַנג צו דער לעקסיק וואָס פּוריסטן האַלטן פאַר „דײַטשמעריש“. צוגעשיקט: פּראָפ. סטעפן קראָג (דענעמאַרק).

ה. מיכאל מאַסאַרסקיס ריכטיקע (און וויכטיקע) אָנווײַזונגען וועגן יידישן נאָמען פון אַ רײַסישן שטעטל?

ו. וואָס מיינט בײַ קאַרפּינאָוויטשן „קולעהײַ“?

ז. וועגן „דער נײַסטער יידישער פּאָעזיע“

ביבליאָגראַפיע צו די מראה⸗מקומות וואָס אין די שאלה⸗תשובהלעך

דאַנק⸗וואָרט: אַ האַרציקן דאַנק מיכאל מאַסאַרסקין (ניו⸗יאָרק) פאַרן פרײַנדלעך איבערלייענען די שאלה⸗תשובהלעך און צושיקן תיקונים. פאַרשטייט זיך, אַז די פולע אחריות פאַר יעדער מיינונג טראָגט דער מחבר דערפון אַליין.



פרעגט זיך אַ פראַגע: וואָס פאַראַ מהלך איז אַמאָליקע צײַטן געווען צווישן דעם צפון⸗מזרחדיקן (ליטווישן) יידיש און דעם צפון⸗מערבדיקן יידיש (אַשטייגער אין צפונדיקן דײַטשלאַנד)?

אָדאָס רירט אָנעט במילא די פראַגע וועגן קדמון (פּראָטאָ) מזרח יידיש בכלל, וואָס זײַנע מתנגדים וואָלטן עלול געווען זוכן צדָדין⸗השָווין בײַם גאַנצן צפון גופא, מ′עט אי″ה צוקומען צודערצו אין אַן אַנדער תשובה.

לאָמיר אָנכאַפּן מיט אַ יאָר דרײַ הונדערט צוריק. פאַרגלײַכן טעקסטן איז אַ סברא ניט בתכלית⸗המציאות, כל⸗זמן מ′האָט ניט צו דער האַנט ניט קיין כתבי ידות, ניט קיין ספרים שבדפוס וואָס שפּיגלען אָפּעט דעם ליטווישן יידיש, און ווער ס′ווייס פאַרקערט פון אַזעלכע זאָל אונדז מוסר מודעה זײַן דערוועגן און מ′עט בפה מלא אָדאָ אין די שאלה⸗תשובהלעך יישר⸗כח אָפּגעבן כדבעי לויטן בשם אמרו.

האָט אונדז די טעג גראַדע פרײַנטלעך צוגעשיקט אונדזער ידיד און לערער פּראָפעסאָר שניאור⸗זלמן לײַמאן שליט″א פון ניו⸗יאָרק אַ פּתשגן פון אַ זײַטל פון ר′ יעקב עמדין (דער יעב″ץ; תנ״ז \ 1697 — תקל״ו \ 1776), פון זײַן מגילת ספר (וואַרשע תרנ״ז \ 1897, צום צוויי הונדטערטסטן יאָרצײַט פונעם יעב″ץ, אַרויסגעגעבן פון דוד כהנא לויטן באָדלעיאַנער כתב⸗יד וואָס אין אָקספאָרד).


דער יעב″ץ איז כידוע געווען אַ זעלטענער גאון און אַ מעכטיקער מחבר, דערצו אַ הייסער צורר אַקעגן די שבתי⸗צביניקעס (זיך באַנוצנדיק מיט חריפות⸗מומחהדיקע, אַפילו מאָדערנע מעטאָדן פון טעקסטן⸗אַנאַליז). נאָר וואָדען, קיין איבעריקער אוהב הבריות איז ער פאָרט ניט געווען (זאָל ער אונדז מוחל זײַן), און מען טרעפט אין זײַנע כתבים גאַנץ שאַרפע אָפּשאַצונגען וועגן פאַרשיידענע בני דור זײַנע (אַפילו אַ סך וואָס זײַנען אונטערן חשד פון שבתאות לחלוטין ניט געפאַלן). אינעם מגילת ספר זשאַלעוועט ניט דער גאון פון אַלטאָנע (בײַ הײַנטיקן טאָג פאַקטיש אַ פאָרשטאָט פון האַמבורג) דעם ליטווישן רב ר′ יחזקאל בר′ אברהם קאַצינעלענבאָגן (קאצינעלין בוגין, קאצינעלינבאגין א.א.), וואָס איז געוואָרן אַ תושב אין זײַן שטאָט און איז אין תע״ד \ 1714 אָנגענומען געוואָרן אַלס רב פון דער אשכנזישער קהילה וואָס אין שטאָט (פאַראַן געווען אויך אַ ספרדישע).

דער מערב⸗אשכנזישער, אַלטאָנער ר′ יעקב עמדין איז ניט איבעריקס נתפּעל געוואָרן אַלמאַי מען האָט פאַר שטאָט רב געבראַכט צו פירן אָזש פון דער ווײַטער ליטע, טיף אין צפון⸗מזרחדיקן אשכנז, איינעם אַ רב יחזקאל קאַצענעלענבאָגן וואָס איז פריער געווען רב אין קיידאַן וואָס טיף אין דער ליטע. נאָכמער, ער האָט געטענהט אַז די עצם רבנות איז חשוד מחמת משא⸗מתן: איינער אַ מאַכער יש(ש)כר כהן האָט מסדר געווען די פּרעסטיזשפולע אַלטאָנער רבנות (בעצם איבער די דרײַ קהילות: אַלטאָנע, האַמבורג, וואַנזבעק — אה״ו) פאַר קאַצענעלענבאָגענען, לויט עמדינען, און בעת מעשה האָט אָטאָ דער ישכר כהן געפּועלט אַז זײַן איידעם זאָל ווערן שטאָט רב אין קיידאן דליטא. [דוד כהנא ווײַזט אָנעט אין אַ הערה ( ז. 124, הערה ג′) אַז דער זעלביקער ישכר כהן ווערט דערמאָנט אין גליקל האָמילס זכרונות, די זײַטלעך בײַ אים זײַנען נאַטירלעך שייך צו דוד קויפמאַנס פראַנקפורטער אויסגאַבע פון 1896, Die Memoiren der Glückel von Hameln, 1645-1719].

אגב: ר′ יחזקאל קאַצענעלענבאָגנס זון דוד איז געווען צווישן די קיידאַנער רבנים וואָס האָבן געלערנט מיטן יינגעלע, אליהן, זון פון שלמה⸗זלמן קרעמער פון ווילנע, דער צוקונפטיקער ווילנער גאון, וועמענס גענויע הברה פון אשכנזישן לשון קודש און יידיש בלייבט אין טייל פּרטים אַ נוטה לספקות (זע ביי אונדז, 2003, דאָרטן גופא זז. 53 – 54). די פראַגע וועגן מעגלעכע שפּעטערדיקע באַציאונגען פון ווילנער גאון מיטן באַוואוסטן שפּעטערדיקן מחלוקת צווישן יעקב עמדין און יונתן אייבעשיץ געהערט אַן אַנדער פּרשה.

זיך אומקערנדיק צו דער שאלה גופא: צווישן די פאַרשיידענערליי זלזולים אַקעגן ר′ יחזקאל קאַצענעלנבויגן וואָס מען טרעפט אין ר′ יעקב עמדינס ספר איז פאַראַן אָט וועלכע טענה וועגן זיין  ל ש ו ן:

אך קבלת זה האיש רי″ח לרב בג″ק מארץ רחוקה, אף כי ממדינת ליטא, עם לעגי שפה אשר לא יכירו בני אשכנז לשונם, אף כי האיש הלז היה עמוק שפה ולשון מגומגם מאד, ולא היה ניכר לשום אחד מבני הקהילה בכלל, חוץ מישכר כהן שהיה לו עסק מו″מ לשם, אבל נעשה בתחבולה גדולה ובערמה עצומה. ראשונה נעשה מו″מ וחליפין עם הרבנות, כי הק′ ישכר כהן שהיה בעל כיס גדול, היתה בתו מכוערת שלא היה יכול להשיאה לאיש עשיר, ואפילו לבלתי עשיר, במדינה זו לא היה אפשר לו, על כן בחר לזווגה ללמדן נכבד ונחמד מארץ פולין […]

(אין כהנאס אויסגאַבע פון מגלת ספר, וואַרשע תרנ″ז; דאָרטן גופא ז. 124)

איבערגעזעצטערהייט (בערך):

נאָר וואָדען, די אויפנעמונג פון אָט דעם פּאַרשוין, ר′ יח[זקאל קאַצענעלענבאָגען] פון אַ ווײַטן לאַנד — אַזש פון מדינת ליטא! — מיט לעכערלעכן לשון וואָס די בני אשכנז [ד.ה. אין די דייטשישע לענדער] וועלן עס ניט דערקענען [אָדער: פאַרשטיין] זייער שפּראַך, ניט קוקנדיק וואָס דער דאָזיקער מענטש רעדט אויף אַן אומפאַרשטענדלעכן לשון, שטאַרק שטאַמלענדיק; און איז בכלל ניט באַקאַנט געווען קיין איינאיינציקן מענטשן אין דער קהילה, אַחוץ ישכר כהן וואָס האָט געהאַט ביזנעס מיט יענעם אָרט. נאָר ס′איז געמאַכט געוואָרן מיט גרויסע מאַכאַרײַקעס און מיט גוואַלדיקער כיטרעקײַט. קודם כל האָט מען געמאַכט אַ ביזנעס פון אויסבײַטעניש פון די רבנות⸗שטעלעס, ווײַלע דער קצין ישכר כהן איז געווען אַ גרויסער בעל⸗קעשענע; איז די טאָכטער זײַנע געווען אַ מיאוסקײַט, וואָס ער האָט ניט געקענט חתונה מאַכן מיט אַ גביר, און אַפילו ניט מיט אַ ניט⸗קיין⸗גביר, דאָ אין לאַנד וואָלט אים ניט מעגלעך געווען, דעריבער האָט ער איר אויסגעקליבן אַ שידוך מיט אַ למדן, אַ בכבודיקן און אַ לײַטזעליקן, פונעם לאַנד פּוילן […]

נמצא, אַז כאָטש איין גרויסער מערב⸗אשכנזישער רב, אין צפון דײַטשלאַנד, האָט אין אַכצעטן יאָרהונדערט אָן אַוועלכע ניט איז וואַקלעניש בײַם אויסדריקן זיך בכתב, געגעבן צו פאַרשטיין, אַז בײַ זײַנע בני דור און בני עיר איז די שפּראַך וואָס בײַ אַ ליטווישן רב אַן אַראָפּגעבראַכטן סײַ לעכערלעך קאָמיש סײַ אומפאַרשטענדלעך. אלא וואָדען, די לינגוויסטישע באַמערקונג באַדאַרף מען משמעות אויפנעמען אין געהעריקן סאָציאָלינגוויסטישן קאָנטעקסט: אַז מה⸗דאָך, שיער ניט אין זעלביקן אָטעם, פאַרזיכערט דאָך דער מחבר, אַז אַן אָרטיקער גביר קען ניט חתונה מאַכן אַ טאָכטער אַ מיאוסקײַט (אין אָריגינאַל: מכוערת) אַפילו ניט מיט אַ ניט⸗רײַכן, און באַדאַרף פאַרדערפאַר זיך אַרײַנלאָזן אין געשעפטן מיט די  מ ז ר ח ד י ק ע  יידן, אָדאָסמאָל אָנרופנדיק: פּוילן. וועגן דעם, „אַ מכוערת“ בײַ אַוועמען אין די אויגן (דעם רב דעם מחברס?) איז געוויינלעך פּתח שין שאַ. דאָ גייט אַ סברא אין ברייטערן ביטול מצד „דײַטשישע יידן“, אַרײַנגערעכנט די פרומע שבפרומסטע וואָס צווישן זיי, לגבי מזרח⸗אייראָפּעאישע יידן, אין יענעם דור ווען עס איז אויפגעקומען דער פענאָמען ווילנער גאון. דער עדות קען האָבן זײַנע פאָראורטיילן, אַן עדות לגבי לשון בלײַבט ער פאָרט, ווער רעדט נאָך דאַמאָלסט אַז קיין צווייטער איז ניטאָ. נאָר איין זאַך קען מען רואיקערהייט אָפּדרינגען פון ר′ יעקב עמדינס אַרויסזאָג וועגן יענער מעשה⸗שהיה מיט אַלטאָנע און קיידאַן: די יידישע דיאַלעקטן האָבן זיך זייער שטאַרק אונטערגעשיידט אשה מאחותה.

אויף להבא: וואָס פאַראַ נפקא⸗מינה אינעם אַמאָליקן דײַטשישן יידנס אָפּרוף אויף אַ ליטווישן קעגנאיבער אַ פּוילישן יידיש? וועגן פריערדיקן צוואַנציקסטן יאָרהונדערט, זע ביי שלמה בירנבוימען (1926: 91, הערה 2; פאַרגלײַך בײַ אונדז, 1994: 216).

ווילנע, י″ב טבת תשע″ו \ דעם 24טן דעצעמבער 2015



פּראָפעסאָר שאול שטאַמפּער (ירושלים) שרײַבט: „וואָס איז די פריסטע דאַטע, צו וועלכער עס זײַנען דאָ ראיות צום פאַראַן⸗זײַן פונעם ליטווישן דיאַלעקט פון יידיש? און וואָס זײַנען די דאַטעס לגבי די אַנדערע דיאַלעקטן פון מזרח⸗אייראָפּעאישן יידיש?


צו די דרומדיקע דיאַלעקטן וועלן מיר זיך לעת⸗עתה דאָ באַנוגענען מיטן אַראָפּברענגען דעם מחלוקת צווישן שלמה בירנבוימען (1939) מיט יודאַ אַ. יאָפען (1954), אָנווײַזנדיק מערניט אַז האַלטן האַלטן מיר, וואָס שייך דער דאַטירונג פון די דרומדיקע מזרח⸗אייראָפּעאישע דיאַלעקטן, מיט בירנבוימען בנוגע לפּחות די ברייטערע צײַט⸗ראַמען, לאו דווקא די אַלע שייכותדיקע פּרטי פּרטים און יוצא⸗מִדְבָֿרֵינוּס. (דאָ גייט אָבער ניט די רייד וועגן זייער מחלוקת, וואָס לויט בירנבוימען באַקומט זיך אַז דער צפונדיקער דיאַלעקט האָט זיך אָפּגעצווײַגט פון דרומדיקן, צי לויט יאָפען, אַז פאַרקערט דער דרומדיקער האָט זיך אַזש פון צפונדיקן אָפּגעצווײַגט, אָדאָ זעען מיר גראַדע אַ רמיזא, זאָל זײַן אלכסונדיקערהייט, אויפן ליטווישן און פּוילישן „ברען“ ביי פאַרשיידענע פאָרשער; זע כץ 1994: 216 – 217.)

צום צפון⸗מזרחדיקן (ליטווישן) יידיש, הייבן מיר אָן, במחילה, מיטן איבערחזרן אונדזער בקשה אין תשובה א, מ′זאָל אונדז צושיקן ידיעות וועגן אַוועלכע ניט איז לינגוויסטיש פאַרלאָזלעכע טעקסטן וואָס שפּיגלען אָפּ צפון⸗מזרח יידיש בפירוש, אָדער כאָטש אויף אַזויפל אַשטייגער ווי מאַקס ווײַנרײַכן איז געלונגען פעסטשטעלן, אין זײַן אַרבעט אין ערשטן באַנד מינסקער צײַטשריפט (ווײַנרײַך 1926), אַז אַ שבתי⸗צבי ליד פון 1666 האָט שטריכן וואָס דערמאָנען אָנעם וואַרשעווער יידיש (דאָרטן גופא, ז. 163).

אין גאַנג פון זײַן גבורותדיקער רעקאָנסטרוקציע פון די מזרח⸗יידישע דיאַלעקטן, האָט אוריאל ווײַנרײַך (1958) אויפגעשטעלט צו די באַטאָנטע וואָקאַלן — דעם סימן הסימנים פון אונדזער דיאַלעקטאָלאָגיע — אויסגעאַרבעטע קדמון (פּראָטאָ) סיסטעמען צום דרומדיקן מזרח יידיש (זז. 237 – 239) און צום צפונדיקן מזרח יידיש (זז. 252 – 254). צי עס שטייט דאָרטן בפירוש צי ניט, איז סײַ ווי קלאָר, אַז די צפונדיקע קדמון סיסטעם, וואָס זי איז מבחין סײַ אין איכות און סײַ אין כמות פון די באַטאָנטע וואָקאַלן, מוז לויט אוריאלן זײַן מדעיקרא אָן אַ שיעור נעענטער צום אַלגעמיינעם קדמון מזרחדיקן יידיש, וואָס דער דרום קען פון אים אָפּשטאַמען, אָבער פאַרקערט ניט.

מיט יאָרן צוריק האָבן מיר טאַקע אויפגעשטעלט אַ סיסטעם קדמון וואָקאַליזם פון כוללדיקן מזרחדיקן יידיש וואָס איז גאַנץ נאָענט מיט אוריאלס סכעמע פאַר קדמון צ פ ו ן⸗מזרח יידיש, ד.ה. „ליטוויש“ (זע: כ″ץ 1982: 84; פּרטים צו דער פאָרגעלייגטער אַנטוויקלונג, דאָרטן 75 – 85, און — 1983: 1030 – 1031).

ביי היינטיקן טאָג וואָלטן מיר זיך פאָרט אויסגעדריקט אַביסל אַנדערש. ערשטנס וואָלטן מיר אונטערגעשטראָכן מיט אַ הא הידיעה, אַז די כוונה פון דער רעקאָנסטרוקציע, לאָמיר אָנכאַפּן, פון קדמון מזרח יידיש, איז אויסן דערווײַזן אַ בשותפותדיקן מקור צו די עמפּיריש⸗אויפגעוויזענע שפּעטערדיק דיאַלעקטישע ממשודיקײַטן פון אַן  אָ נ ז ע ע ו ו ד י ק ן  חלק פונעם לשון, ניט פון לשון גאַנצערהייט. דאָס איז ניט נאָר אַ טעאָרעטישע באַוואָרעניש, עס איז אַ פּונקט צו וועלכן מיר וועלן זיך מירצעשעם אומקערן, בײַם אָפּוועגן אַלערלייאיקע פּרטים לויט פאַרשיידענע וואָג⸗און⸗מאָסן, בתוכם: די אָפטמאָל סוביעקטיווע אָפּמעסטונג, אַוואָס שטעלט מיט זיך פאָר דעם דרך המלך פון דער שפּראַך אַנטוויקלונג, און וואָס הייסט אַן אוניקאַלער יוצא⸗דופנדיקער איינס, וואָס שפּיגלט אָפּ אַן אויסנאַם; דערצו: די נייטיקײַט אַרײַנטראָגן אין דער שקלא וטריא היסטאָרישע פאַרהעלטענישן וואָס וואַקסן פון דער אָפּגעזוכטער עווידענץ, אַפילו (אָדער: דווקא!) ווען אָט די עווידענץ וואַקסט ניט פון דער רעקאָנסטרוקציע פונעם פילאָלאָגס אַרבעטס⸗טיש, נאָר מחוץ דער רעקאָנסטרואירונגס⸗אַרבעט, פון „פּאַפּירלעך“ (זע פון פאַרגלײַך וועגן אונדזער דיסקוסיע וועגן רעקאָנסטרוקציע אויפן סמך פון „פּאַפּירלעך“ — כ″ץ 2013: § III).

איז במה דברים אמורים?

די סאַמע באַוואוסטע שטריכן פון ליטווישן יידיש, פאָלקלאָריסטיש גערעדט און לויט אַ ברייטערער באַהאַוונטקײַט געמאָסטן, זײַנען אָן אַ ספק די פענאָמענען „סאַבעסדיקער לאָסן [סבתדיקער לָסון]“ (אוריאל ווײַנרײַך 1952), און „דער ליטווישער עי“, געמיינט, פאַרשטייט זיך דער [ej] אַרויסרייד בײַ אַזעלכע איינסן ווי ברויט, חודש, קוימען (וואָס איז גאָרניט אוניווערסאַל; זע למשל די מאַפּע צו טויב). אויב אַרײַנטרעטן אַ קאַפּ אין דער באַוואוסטזיניקײַט פון געלערנטע און בפירוש פאַראינטערעסירטע אין דער זאַך, קען מען גלײַך אויף אַן אָרט צוגעבן די צוויי⸗מינימדיקײַט (זכר און נקבה) בײַ סובסטאַנטיוון אויפן אָרט פון די דרײַ וואָס בײַ די דרומדיקע דיאַלעקטן. אגב פאַרבלײַבט עד היום יודל מאַרקס „אונדזער ליטווישער יידיש“ די שענסטע, ברייטסטע שילדערונג פונעם פאַר⸗חורבנדיקן ליטווישן יידיש (מאַרק 1951).

וואָס אָבער אַן אמת, זײַנען אָט די דרײַ „פּאָפּולערע גרונט⸗סימנים“ אין די לעצטע דורות געגליכן צו די אויסערלעכע, אייגנאַרטיקע טשיקאַווע צווײַגן און צווײַגעלעך פון אַן אוראַלטן בוים, דאָס וואָס ס′שטעלט מיט זיך פאָר דעם יחידס און דעם כללס מענטשלעכע, וויזועלע אָפּבילד פון דעם⸗אָ בוים. אויף משיג זײַן עלטערע תקופות און פראַגן צום אָפּשטאַם איז נייטיק ווי ניט איז אַ קוק טאָן אין אינעווייניקסטן שטאַם און אונטערן ערד⸗פלאַך די וואָרצלען. אָדאָ⸗אָ וועלן מיר זיך באַנוגענען מיט נאָר איין לפי⸗ערך „אַבסטראַקטן“ סך⸗הכל צום ברייטערן בילד. דהיינו:

אַזש פון יחיאל פישערן (1936) און ווײַטער (אוריאל ווײַנרײַך 1958; מאַקס ווײַנרײַך 1960; מיכל הערצאָג 1965; כ″ץ 1983 א.א.) האָט מען פּראָיעקטן אויף קדמון סכעמעס פון יידישן וואָקאַליזם, און וואו מער וואו ווייניקער אויך פונעם מזרח⸗אייראָפּעאישן יידיש פאַר⸗זיך. ביי אַלע איז אַ סברא פאַראַן אַ חסרון (און בײַ אונדז גופא אַוודאי און אַוודאי), אַז אינעם אולטראַ⸗סטרוקטוראַליסטישן גײַסט, און אַ סברא אויך אין אונדזער איבערגעטריבענעם דראַנג צו זוכן פאַר יידיש „פּערפעקטע קאָרעספּאָנדענצן“, האָבן מיר וואו⸗ניט⸗וואו אָן אַ זײַט געלאָזן אַפילו גרונטיקע פילאָלאָגישע פאַרהעלטענישן וואָס זײַנען דירעקט און אויף אַ יסודותדיקן אופן פאַרקניפּט מיטן עצם ענין. דהיינו:

שלמה בירנבוים (1934) האָט מיט אַ באַרג ראיות פון אַמאָליקע כתבים אויפגעוויזן אַז דער יידיש⸗דיאַלעקטישער איבערגאַנג פון u אויף i, עווענטועל אויך ū אויף ī, אין די ביידע פאַלן געוויינלעך דורך דויערהאַפטיקע צווישן⸗סטאַדיעס פון ü און ǖ, שטאַמט גאָר פון (דרומדיקע) געגנטן פון אַמאָליקן  מ ע ר ב  יידיש און איז אַריבערגעפירט געוואָרן צו מזרחצו אין די „פּוילישע לענדער“. דער דאָזיקער גאָר  אַ ל ט ⸗ מ ע ר ב ד י ק ע ר וואָקאַלישער איבערבײַט איז ניט אָפּצוטיילן פון דער  ק י י ט  אָנגעווענדטע איכותדיקע איבערגאַנגען פון ɔ אויף u און פון ō אויף ū (פאַרנעמענדיק דעם אָרט פון /u/ און /ū/ אין דער סיסטעם). 

דערצו גייען אַרײַן אויך אַנדערע אָנגעווענדטע גאַנצענע ק י  י ט ן קלאַנגיקע בײַטן. דער עיקר דאָ שטעקט פאָרט ניט אין פּרטים, נאָר וואָדען אין אָט וואָס: אין דער היסטאָרישער יידישער דיאַלעקטאָלאָגיע גייט דאָ ניט, צו דער איצטיקער שאלה⸗תשובה, אין אַ וואָרט דאָ און אַ קלאַנג דאָרטן, וואָס פאַרשיידענע געלערנטע זײַנען נוטה, גאַנץ אַטאָמיסטיש און ווען ניט ווען קאַפּריזנערהייט אַרויסדרינגען עולמות ומלואם.

מיר האַלטן, אַז די העכסט⸗ראַדיקאַלע שינויים אין סיסטעם באַטאָנטן וואָקאַליזם פון דרומדיקע מזרח⸗אייראָפּעאישן יידיש שטעלן מיט זיך פאָר אַ ממשותדיק⸗עמפּירישן שלל פון שפּראַכיקן חומר, אַרײַננעמענדיק ט ו י ז נ ט ע ר ווערטער און איינסן אין דער שפּראַך, וועמענס מקור איז שוין איינמאָל נוגע צו אונדזערע יידישע קדמון דיאַלעקטן.

אָט אַשטייגער איז אונדזער אַמאָליקע סכעמע פון דער דינאַמישער אַנטוויקלונג פון צענטראַל⸗מזרח יידיש („פּויליש“).

(a) to MEY (CY)

מקור: כ″ץ 1982: באַנד 2, ז. 583; אין דײַטשישער איבערזעצונג: כ″ץ 1983: 1029  (דאָרטן טאַבעלע 53.9)


די ווײַטערדיקע און פּרינציפּיעל שפּעטערדיקע שינויים וואָס האָבן געפירט צום כאַראפקטעריסטישן דרומדיקן דרום⸗מזרחדיקן יידיש („אוקראַאיניש“) זײַנען כולל (אין אייבערשטן קעסטעלע — „וואָלינעריש“; אין אונטערשטן מער: „פּאָדאָליער⸗בעסאַראַביש“)

(b) to SEY

מקור: כ″ץ 1982: באַנד 2, ז. 586; אין דײַטשישער איבערזעצונג: כ″ץ 1983: 1029 (דאָרטן טאַבעלע 53.11)

איז מאי קא משמע לן? דער געאָגראַפישער מאַסיווער און נאָכאַנאַנדיקער שטח וואָס אין צפון („ליטוויש“), וואו ס′איז ניטאָ אויף קיין רפואה קיין רמז ושמץ פון די אַלע ט ו י ז נ ט ע ר פאָרמעס וואָס זײַנען עמפּיריש און סיסטעמאַטיש איבערגעאַנדערשט געוואָרן, שטאַמט אָפּ פון אַ זייער אַלטער שפּראַך⸗סטאַדיע פון יידיש אין מזרח אייראָפּע. אַז דער עלטסטער צפון⸗מזרחדיקער („ליטווישער“) יידיש איז דער עלטסטער יידיש אין מזרח אייראָפּע אויף וועלכן די איבערגאַנגען  i ⟵ u (אויך ī ⟵ ū), און  u  ⟵  ɔ  (אויך ū  ⟵  ō), און זייערע אַלע אָנגעווענדטע איבערגאַנגען, האָבן קיין דריסת הרגל ניט געהאַט.

אַנדערש געזאָגט געוואָרן וועט דאָס הייסן, אַז דער עלטסטער יידיש אין די צפונדיקן געביטן איז ב מ י ל א דער עלטסטער צפון⸗מזרחדיקער („ליטווישער“) יידיש.

אָבער אַווען, ברחל בתך הקטנה, דאָס קען זײַן, ווייס מען נאָך ניט, נאָר וואָדען: שלמה בירנבוים האָט אָנגעוויזן אויף דער דאַטע ±1385, אַווען ס′האָבן דער ליטווישער גרויספירשטנטום מיט דער פּוילישער מלוכה צוערשט אַרײַן אין אַ פאַראיין, ווי אַ צײַט פון אַן אויפגעעפנטן גרענעץ, מיט אַן השערה אַז בלויז  פ אַ ר יענער צײַט איז געווען אַזאַ מין פּאָליטיש⸗מיליטערישע מחיצה וואָס וואָלט בכח געווען שטעלן אַ פעסטן „עד⸗כאן“ לגבי דער מעכטיקער כוואַליע פון איכותדיקן קלאַנגען⸗בײַט (בירנבוים 1939: 40).

ס′איז דאָך שוין איינמאָל אַן עד⸗כאן, מה⸗דאָך, אַז ניט קוקנדיק אויף קליינינקע דיאַלעקטיש⸗געמישטע אינדזלעך ווי אַשטייגער טשערנאָבל אָדער בריסק, איז די u ~ o ליניע אַזאַ פעסטע, אַז מער ווי אַ יובל מיט יאָרן נאָכן חורבן איז געלונגען ניט נאָר אויפרעקאָרדירן אויפסנײַ די ליניע, נאָר אין געוויסע פאַלן וואו אַ יחיד אַ זקן אַן עדות איז געווען, אַפילו געוואָר ווערן די קליינע ישובים וואָס אויף איטלעכער זײַט פונעם אוראַלטן צפוןדרומדיקן גרענעץ פון מזרחדיקן יידיש (זע כ″ץ 2016: § 7). דאָס הייסט נאָך ניט, אַז דער יידיש⸗דיאַלעקטישער גרענעץ האָט זיך ניט אויף אַהין אָדער אַהער אַ רוק געטאָן; ס′הייסט אָבער טאַקע בפירוש, אַז דער מיטלעלטערלעכער „עד⸗כאן“ פון דער יסודותדיקער דרום טעריטאָריע, אויסער וועלכער די מעכטיקע קייט איבערגאַנגען וואָס האָבן אינגאַנצן איבערגעאַנדערשט דעם אַקוסטישן פּנים הלשון, i ⟵ u (אויך ī ⟵ ū), און  u  ⟵  ɔ  (אויך ū  ⟵  ō), צווישן אַנדערע, איז געבליבן אָט דער אייגענער „עד⸗כאן“ וואָס איז חל אַזש ביז די לעצטע יידיש ריידנדיקע יחידים אין אָט די מקומות.

נמצא, אַז דעם עלטסטן ליטווישן יידיש וועט מען במילא טרעפן בײַם עלטסטן אשכנזישן ישוב וואָס אין דער ליטע.

אַוואָס נאָר, אַזאַ טערמין ווי „ליטע“, אַוואו דער עצם שטח האָט זיך אַ סך מאָל געענדערט אין גאַנג פון דער געשיכטע איז ניט קיין איבעריקס שטרענג⸗וויסנשאַפטלעכער טערמין. אַ סך מער פּינקטלעך⸗עמפּיריש וואָלט זײַן די עצם ליניע צווישן אַלע מיני יידישע שפּראַכיקע נוסחאות וואָס זיינען „ליטוויש“ אַקעגנאיבער אַלע דרומדיקע, ד.ה. ניטליטווישע; עמפּיריש סײַ ווײַל ס′בויט זיך אויף אַ יאָרהונדערט פון דיאַלעקטאָלאָגיע וועמענס לעילאדיקסטע סחורה ס′איז דער לעבעדיקער מענטש וואָס רעדט די שפּראַך, סײַ ווייל אין טיפן צפון מאַכט זיך קיין ס י מ ן ניט פון די אַלע דרומדיקע שינויים וואָס נעמען אַרום די מערהײַט ווערטער אין דער שפּראַך (ניט דעם אָדער אַן אַנדער לינגוויסטס פאַרליאַפּען זיך אין דעם אָדער אַן אַנדער פּרטל אַלס שיער ניט קיין אַנטדעקטע אַמעריטשקע). פאַרשטייט זיך, אַז  י ע ד ע ר  שפּראַך גרענעץ, ווי פעסט ער זאָל זיך ניט האַלטן, רוקט זיך אין משך פון דורות, און עס קומען אויף אַוואוניטוואו געמישטע אונטערדיאַלעקטן (צו אונדזער ענין וועלן דאָ אַרײַנגיין דער בריסקער קרײַז אין פּאָלעסיע, דער טשערנאָבלער יידיש, און אפשר נאָך וואָס).

קען מען אויך שטעלן אָט אַזוי די זאַך: די עלטסטע שפּראַך בײַ די ערשטע אשכנזים וואָס קענטיק⸗ממשותדיק צו צפון צוצו (ניט סתם גלאַט יענע פּאָר וויאָרסטלעך) פון דער שייד⸗ליניע (די דרומדיקע בלויע ליניע אין אָט דער מאַפּע), איז בעיקרא, במילא, און בדיעבד: צפון מזרח יידיש (ל י ט ו ו י ש  אין פּאָפּולער לינגוויסטישן זין) פון דער ערשטער רגע פון גרופּעסווײַזער אַשכנזישער באַזעצונג אין אָט די מקומות.

 2016 Map JPEG (from PDF)

 מקור: כ″ץ 2016    

ס′מאַכט זיך אַמאָל אַפילו, אַז דער פּשוטער שכל הישר טראָגט אויס אויף דער זעלביקער מסקנא אַוואָס די מעטאָדאָלאָגיע פון דער היסטאָרישער לינגוויסטיק.

צולאָג צום ענין פון קדמון וואָקאַליזם פון מזרחדיקן יידיש: דער ערשטער פּונקט איז מער נוגע דער עסטעטיק פון קדמון מזרח יידיש, דער צווייטער איז שייך צום לינגוויסטישן מהות גופא.

(א) ס′וואָלט טאַקע זײַן מהודרדיק סימעטריש און גלייכגעוויכטיש אין קלאַסיש נעאָגראַמאַטישן גײַסט, אַז אַ קדמון וואָקאַליזם מיט אַלע אָפּגעהיטע חילוקים, סײַ כמותדיקע און סײַ איכותדיקע, לאָזט פון זיך אַרויס אַ צפון מיט אַן איכותדיק קאָנסערוואַטאָרישער וואָקאַלישער סיסטעם און אַ דרום מיט אַ כמותדיק קאָנסערוואַטאָרישער וואָקאַלישער סיסטעם. באַקומט זיך אָבער, אַז קדמון מזרח יידיש, אויף ווי ווײַט ער לאָזט זיך רעקאָנסטרואירן, איז אין זײַן סיסטעם באַטאָנטע וואָקאַלן אַ היפּש ביסל נעענטער צום שפּעטער אויפגעוויזענעם צפונדיקן מזרח יידיש איידער צום דרומדיקן. אָדאָס איז אַ פּועל יוצא פון די איצט אויסגעשטאָרבענע סאַמע מערבדיקסטע שטחים פון ליטווישן יידיש, מיט זייער דאָ⸗ניט⸗לאַנג אויפגעהיטער כמותדיקער דיפערענצירונג בײַ די באַטאָנטע וואָקאַלן, סײַ אין קורלאַנד (מאַקס ווײַנרײַך 1923: 199 – 200), און סײַ אינעם זאַמעטער יידיש (יודל מאַרק 1951: 439  – 440). פאַרקערט איז דער פאַל בײַ די לחלוטין קאָנסערוואַטיווע וואָקאַלישע איכותן — אַן אויסנאַמסלאָזע פאַראַניקײַט פון גאָר אַמאָליקע וואָקאַלישע איכותן אין  אַ ל ע  נוסחאות פונעם ליטווישן יידיש. די פאַרשיידענע קייטן פון איכותדיקע קלאַנגען⸗בײַטן וואָס אין דרום האָבן ניט געהאַט קיין ברעקל השפּעה — דער „עד⸗כאן“ פון אונדזער תשובה.

(ב) והשנית, שטאַמט דער ערשטער עטאַפּ פון די כאַראַקטעריסטישע דרומדיקע קייטן פון איכותדיקן קלאַנגען⸗בײַט גאָר פון עלטערן מערבדיקן יידיש (בירנבוים 1934), און האָט דעם צפון פון מזרח⸗אייראָפּעאישן יידיש ניט אָנגערירט. נמצא, אַז קדמון מזרח יידיש קען ניט זײַן קיין קדמון דיאַלעקט פאַרן ג אַ נ צ ן מזרחדיקן יידישן לשון, ווײַל ער קען ניט אַרייננעמען קיין פּ ר ע⸗ מזרח⸗יידישע שטריכן ווי די מעכטיקע קייטן קלאַנגען⸗בײַטן צום דרום וואָס האָבן ניט געקענט האָבן אַ חלק אין די צפונדיקע שטחים וואו די אוראַלטע איכותן ווערן לחלוטין אָפּגעהיט עד היום הזה.

ווילנע, כ″ה אייר תשע″ו \  דעם 2טן יוני 2016

לעצטע הגהה ב′ סיוון תשע″ו \  דעם 8טן יוני 2016


דבר המקדים

אדם אריאל (אַ סטודענט אין ישיבה אוניווערסיטעט אין ניויאָרק) האָט פרײַנטלעך צוגעשיקט אַ שאלה וועגן צוויי אויסצוגן פון סעיפים בײַם מפורסמדיקן רב, ר′ יחיאל מיכל (הלוי) עפּשטיין, דעם בעל ערוך השולחן, וועלכער איז געבאָרן געוואָרן אין 1829 אין באַברויסק (אין די מזרחדיקע קאַנטן פון מינסקער גובערניע, אין די טיפענישן פון דער יידישער ליטע (דער צפוןמזרח פון יידיש און פון אשכנז), אין די געגנטן וואָס האָבן אַמאָל געהייסן בײַ יידן: רסן (זע כ″ץ 1996, און די מאַפּע אין כ″ץ 2008). „דער ערוך השולחן“ איז נפטר געוואָרן אין 1908 אין נאַוואַרעדאָק (אין דער מערבדיקער מינסקער גובערניע [ביז 1848 איז די שטאָט צו גראָדנער גובערניע פאַררעכנט געוואָרן]). אין נאַוואַרעדאָק האָט ער זײַנע לעצטע 34 יאָר געדינט אַלס שטאָטרב. אָט די מקומות געפינען זיך בײַ הײַנטיקן טאָג אין בעלאַרוס (ווײַסרוסלאַנד), וואו באַברויסק גייט אַרײַן אין מאָלעווער (מאָהילעווער) פּראָווינץ (אָבלאַסט), און נאַוואַרעדאָק איז ווידער אַרײַן אין גראָדנער פּראָווינץ.

די ביידע צוגעשיקטע אויסצוגן זײַנען טאַקע פונעם ערוך השולחן, קומט דעם חשובן שואל אַ יישר כח פאַרן שיקן סײַ די געדרוקטע זײַטלעך פון שער⸗בלאַט, מיט די זײַטלעך מיטן ערשטן און צווייטן אויסצוג, פון אַן אַמאָליקן דרוק, פיעטרקוב (פּיעטערקאָוו) תרס″ג (1902 – 1903); און סײַ דעם דיגיטאַליזירטן טעקסט מיטן צוגאָב פון מאָדערנע אָפּשטעל⸗צייכנס, אַוואו מען קען טרעפן דעם ערשטן און דעם צווייטן אויסצוג.

דער ערשטער אויסצוג איז פון ערוך השולחן, אורח חיים סימן סא סעיף ח: 

[…] וכן יש לדקדק באות עי″ן בק″ש דלפי מבטא שלנו שוין העי″ן והאל″ף ובבק″ש יש לדקדק להפרישם זה מזה וכן בין שי″ן שמאלית לתי″ו רפה ולכן בתיבת ועשיתם יש לדקדק הרבה להטעים העי″ן, ולהפריש בין השי″ן להתי″ו וכן הסמ″ך לא יהיה דומה לתי″ו רפה וכן בבי″ת רפה יש להטעים שלא יתראה כפ″א רפה כמו ואהבת לבבך ובכל והרבה כאלו ויטעים העי″ן של אשר נשבע.

און איבערגעזעצטערהייט, מיט אָפּשטעל⸗צייכנס און נקודות וואו נייטיק, און צוגאָבן אין קאַנטיקע קלאַמערן [ ]):

[…] און אָט אַזוי אויך באַדאַרף מען מדקדק זײַן בײַם אות ע אין קריאת⸗שמע [קרישמע], ווײַל לויט אונדזער אַרויסרייד [דיאַלעקט] איז גלײַך דער ע מיטן א, באַדאַרף מען מבחין זײַן איינער פונעם אַנדערן. און אָט אַזוי אָ צווישן דעם שׂ [שין שמאל] מיטן תֿ מיט אַ רפה. אַזוי אַרום באַדאַרף מען אין וואָרט וַעֲשִׂיתֶם שטאַרק מדקדק זײַן באַטאָנען דעם ע, און מבחין זײַן צווישן דעם שׂ מיטן תֿ. און אָט אַזוי בײַם ס, ער זאָל ניט זײַן געגליכן מיטן רפה תֿ. און אָט אַזוי בײַם רפה בֿ, באַדאַרף מען באַטאָנען, ער זאָל זיך ניט אַרויסווײַזן פאַר אַ רפה פֿ, למשל בײַ די ווערטער וְאָהַבְתָּלְבָבְךָוּבְכָל, און אַ סך אַזעלכע. און מען באַדאַרף באַטאָנען דעם ע וואָס אין אֲשֶׁר נִשְׁבַּע.

 דער צווייטער איז פון אָדאָרטן, סימן סב סעיף ב:

ומזה הטעם אני אומר דלפי מבטא שלנו שאין הפרש בין אל″ף לעי″ן ובין חי″ת לכ″ף ובין סמ″ך לתי″ו רפויה, ובין טי″ת לתי″ו דגוש יצאו ידי חובתן כיון שלשונם כן הוא והרי אנו רואים שהמדקדקים בזה בא להם ההפרש בטורח רב, ועדיין אין ההפרש כראוי […]


און צוליב אָטאָ דער סיבה זאָג איך אָט וואָס: אַז לויט אונדזער אַרויסרייד [דיאַלעקט] איז ניטאָ קיין חילוק צווישן א און ע; צווישן ח און כֿ; און צווישן ס און תֿ מיט אַ רפה; און צווישן ט און תּ מיט אַ דגש; איז מען יוצא מיט דער התחייבות [פון דער מצווה], ווײַל אָט אַזוי אָ איז זייער לשון. און נאָכאַלעמען [אַפילו] ביי די בעלי דקדוק זעען מיר אַז די אונטערשיידונג קומט אָן מיט גרויס טירחא, און די אונטערשיידונג איז ניט ווי ס’באַדאַרף צו זײַן […]

[פון קאָנטעקסט וועגן: די ווערטער בײַם אָנהייב („און צוליב אָטאָ דער סיבה“) פאַררופן זיך אויפן פריערדיקן סעיף (סימן סב סעיף א′) וואָס ענדיקט זיך מיטן אַראָפּברענגען פונעם פּראָגער מהר″ל (מהר″ל⸗פּראָג, ר′ יהודה לייב בן בצלאל), פון זיין ספר תפארת ישראל, ר′ אחא′ס אַ זאָג אין שיר השירים רבה, וועגן פאַרמישן אהבה (′ליבשאַפט′) מיט איבה (′שנאה′), למשל אין קריאת שמע: ואהבת און ואיבת. פונדעסטוועגן איז דער עיקר פון סעיף א′ אַ ציטאַט פון דער משנה (ברכות טו עמוד א) און דעם ערוך השולחנס פאַקטישער פּסק, דהיינו: „קרא ולא דקדק באותיותיה יצא“ (′האָט ער געלייענט און ניט מדקדק געווען אין די אותיות – האָט ער יוצא געווען′). אין דער משנה גופא איז דאָס ר′ יוֹסי′ס מיינונג אין אַ מחלוקת מיט ר′ יהודהן, נאָר דאָס אַלצדינג וואָלט אַ סברא צו ווײַט געפירט פון אונדזער שאלה.]


קומען מיר אָנעט צו דער עצם שאלה פון חשובן געלערנטן, אדם אריאל פון ניו⸗יאָרק, וואָס ער שיקט אונדז קיין ווילנע, וואָס לייענט זיך (איבערגעזעצט פון ענגליש):

„מיר זעען אַז ר′ יחיאל מיכל עפּשטיין האַלט אַז די אותיות ס און תֿ רפויה באַדאַרף מען מבחין זײַן איינער פון אַנדערן (כאָטש ביי קריאת⸗שמע), אַ דיפערענצירונג וואָס מען טרעפט ניט בײַ אשכנזים — ביידע האָט מען דעמאָלט אַרויסגערעדט ווי s, פּונקט ווי ס’איז הײַנט דער גאַנג בײַ די אשכנזים. מיר גייט אין פאַרשטיין וואָס פאַראַ גענויען אונטערשייד ער האָט געהאַט אין זינען. אפשר האָט ער געהאַט אין זינען אַ שטימלאָזן פריקאַטיוו⸗קלאַנג th אַזוי ווי לויט דער טראַדיציע בײַ די תימנער. אויב אַזוי, צי קענען מיר געוואָר ווערן ווי אַזוי ער וואָלט דערפון געוואוסט? צי וואָלט דאָס געווען באַקאַנט הרב עפּשטיינען אין דער ליטע אין שפּעטערדיקן נײַנצעטן יאָרהונדערט? טאָמער ניט, צי וואָלט עס געווען געבויט אויף פאָרשונגען (אַקאַדעמישע צי אַנדערע) פון די מזרחדיקע טראַדיציעס און בתוכם די תֵּימָנישע? טאָמער ניט, צי האָט איר אַ סברא וועגן וועלכן אַנדערן קלאַנג ער האָט דאָ געהאַט בדעה?“


לכתחילה איז אויפן אָרט זיך מודה ומתוודה זײַן, אַז בלויז אַ ממשותדיקער ביאָגראַף פונעם רבנישן מחבר וואָלט  א פ ש ר  געקענט אויסזוכן אינפאָרמאַציעס וועגן זײַנע קאָנטאַקטן און בכלל זײַן לעבנסוועג און אַנדערע כתבים, וואָס מען האָפט אַז זיי וואָלטן געהאַט אַ שייכות, און דערצו אַ ניצלעכן, לגבי דער חשובער צוגעשיקטער פראַגע. דאָָס איז בעצם אַן אַרט התנצלות פאַרדערפאַר אַז אונדזער תשובה דאָ איז בעצם אַן אַרײַנקלערעניש, אַן השערה, וואָס ווײַטערדיקע פאָרשונג וועט אפשר מסוגל זײַן אָפּפרעגן אָדער באַשטעטיקן. איז, מיט אָט דער באַוואָרעניש:

אַ ספק צי אַ רב אַ פּוסק אין באַברויסק אָדער נאַוואַרעדאָק וואָלט אין נײַנצעטן יאָרהונדערט געהאַט פעסטע ידיעות וועגן דעם אַרויסרייד פון לשון קודש אין תימן אָדער אין אַנדערע יידישע ישובים פון ווײַטן מיטעלן מזרח. ווער ס’וויל אַזוי טענהן איז עס אַ פאַל פון  — עליו הראיה.

ס′לייגט זיך מער אויפן שכל אַז אַ רב אין אַזעלכע שטעט ווי באַברויסק אָדער נאַוואַרעדאָק וואָלט אין משך פון זײַן לעבן געהאַט אַ קאָנטאַקט ווען⸗ניט⸗ווען אָדער מיט קריסטלעכע געלערנטע ביכער וועגן העברעאיש אָדער אַפילו מיט קריסטלעכע לעבעדיקע גײַסטלעכער וועלכע האָבן שטודירט העברעאיש. אין ביידע פאַלן וואָלט ער גלײַך געלייגט אַכט אויף די חילוקים פון קלאַסישן לשון קודש וואָס זײַנען בײַ די אשכנזים פאַרלאָרן געגאַנגען, צווישן זיי די קלאַסישע דיפערענצירונגען, לאָמיר אָנכאַפּן, פון גּ אַקעגן גֿ און פון דּ אַקעגן דֿ, אין ביידע פאַלן פון דער סעריע „בגד כפת“, און בתוכם די לאַנג באַקאַנטע אָנגענומענע מיינונג אַז דער תֿ רפויה איז געווען אַ מין θ (אַן ערך ווי דער ענגלישער th אין think) להיפּוך צו אַ דֿ רפויה וואָס איז געווען אַ מין ð (אַן ערך ווי דער ענגלישער th אין though). וואָלט זיך באַקומען במילא, מיט (אָדער אַפילו אָן) אַזאַ פאָנעטישער פּינקטלעכקייט, אַז דער תֿ רפויה דאַרף פּרינציפּיעל זיין אַ נ ד ע ר ש איידער דער ס און דער שׂ, (וואָס מ’האָט אויך אָנגערופן אויף יידיש פּשוט: „דער שמאל“ [סמאָל]).

פאַראַן אָבער אַ פּשוטערע סברא דאָ, וואָס לייגט זיך מער אויפן שכל, און איז אויך בשעת מעשה דווקא אַן אָנווײַז אויף אַ טשיקאַוון אינטעלעקטועלן פאַל, וואו דער רבנישער גאַגנ טראַכטן אין משך פון דור דורות איז, אויף חידושים, אין פולן אײַנקלאַנג מיט די השגות פון דער מאָדערנער פילאָלאָגיע. סײַ די און סײַ די, אַז זיי קוקן אויפן אוראַלטן העברעאישן (אָדער אַפילו כלל⸗סעמיטישן) אַלפאַבעט, אָדער אַז זיי קוקן אויף די שפּעטערע (און פון אונדזער שטאַנדפּונקט אויך גאָר אַלטע) סיסטעמען ניקוד, דרינגען זיי אָפּ אַן איינציקע מסקנא: דהיינו, אַז יעדער סימן האָט מיט זיך פאָרגעשטעלט אַן איינאיינציקן (אוניקאַלן, יחיד⸗במינודיקן) קלאַנג.

פאַר דער מאָדערנער לינגוויסטיק איז צומאָל געוואָרן וויכטיקער דערגרונטעווען זיך, וויפל פון זיי זײַנען פאָנעמען וואָס זײַנען בכח דיפערענצירן אַ באַדײַט און ניט סתם אַלאָפאָנען; דער פאַל פון „בגד כפת“ איז פאַר טייל מאָדערנע סטרוקטוראַליסטישע לינגוויסטן גראַדע ווייניקער אינטערעסאַנט ווײַל מען קען פאָראויסזאָגן וואו אַן עקספּלאָסיוו⸗קלאַנג (דגש) און וואו אַ ספּיראַנט (פריקאַטיוו) פון דער פאָנעטישער שכנות גופא: די ספּיראַנטן קומען נאָך אַ וואָקאַל און דעם עסק קענען זיי גאָר אָפּפּטרן מיט אַ פאָנאָלאָגישן „כלל פון נאָך⸗וואָקאַלישער ספּיראַנטיזירונג“, און שוין. אָבער אויך די טעמע וואָלט אונדז צו ווײַט אַוועקגעפירט.

דער עיקר איז דאָ דער מערקווערדיקער צד⸗השווה, ביי רעליגיעזע און פילאָלאָגישע פּרינציפּן, בײַם באַנעמען סימנים שבכתב (גראַפעמען — אותיות צי נקודות) פון קלאַסישן העברעאיש (אָדער אַוועלכן ניט איז אַמאָליקן לשון שבכתב). די רבנים וואָס גיבן זיך אָפּ מיטן ענין האַלטן, רעליגיעז⸗אידעאָלאָגיש, אַז די אוניקאַלע, דיפערענצירטע סימנים פונעם אוראַלטן הייליקן לשון מוזן אייביק אויפגענומען ווערן מיט אוניקאַלע, דיפערענצירטע קלאַנגען בײַ היינטיקן טאָג, לפּחות „פּרינציפּיעל“. ס′איז דאָך אַ פראַגע פון הייליקײַט. אָבער דאָס איז אַ הייליקײַט וואָס מען וועט אומזיסט זוכן אין דער תורה גופא, ווײַל ס′איז אַ שפּעטערדיקער ענין וואָס וואַקסט פון ריכטיק באַנעמען בדיעבד (צומאָל מיט טויזנטער יאָר שפּעטער) די הייליקע שפּראַך בײַ אַזעלכע אונטערנעמונגען ווי דאַוונען און בפרט בײַאַזאַ הייליקער תפילה ווי שמע ישראל (אַ טעמע באַהאַנדלט שוין אין דער משנה, מסכת ברכות), וואָס באַשטייט פון פּסוקים פון דער תורה. דאָס איז אַ הייליקײַט וואָס איז געוואַקסן בײַ רבנים פון אַ קלאָרן פילאָלאָגישן שכל הישר, אַז פאַרשיידענע סימנים האָבן אַמאָל אָנגעוויזן אויף פאַרשיידענע אַרויסריידן, אַפילו ווען טייל הבחנות זײַנען בײַ דער אָדער אַן אַנדער יידישער עדה פאַרלאָרן געוואָרן אין משך פון די דורות. און בײַ דער היסטאָרישער לינגוויסטיק איז עס גלאַט אַ שכלדיקער אויסגאַנג⸗פּונקט, מען זאָל האַלטן, אַז יעדער סימן האָט לכתחילה פאַרטראָטן אַן אוניקאַלן, יחיד⸗במינודיקן קלאַנג אָדער פאָנעטישן שטריך.

קערן מיר זיך אום צו הרב ר′ יחיאל מיכל עפּשטיין פון באַברויסק און נאַוואַרעדאָק. אין לעצטן סך⸗הכל איז גאָר ניט נייטיק צו פּאָסטולירן אַ באַקאַנטשאַפט מיט די נוסחאות פון געלייענטן אָדער געדאַוונטן העברעאיש אין ווײַטן תימן, און אַפילו ניט קיין איבעריקע באַהאַוונטקײַט אין דער קריסטלעכער קענטשאַפט פון קלאַסישן העברעאיש בײַ טייל געלערנטע (דער עיקר דעמאָלט: טייל גלחים). מיר זעען שוין פון אַפילו די געבראַכטע קורצע אויסצוגן פונעם ערוך השולחן, אַז דער רב האָט זיך אַרײַנגעטאָן אין אַן ענין וואָס שווימט אויף אין דער רבנישער ליטעראַטור, אין וועלכער ער איז כל ימיו געווען אַזוי גרינטלעך פאַרטיפט, ניט נאָר פון דער משנה, נאָר פון אַזעלכע אשכנזישע גדולים ווי דער מהר″ל פּראָג וועמען ער ברענגט אין סעיף האַרט פאַרן צווייטן ציטירטן סעיף. (וועגן טייל פון מהר″ל פּראָגס שיטות לגבי ניקוד און הברה האָבן מיר געשריבן מיט אַ סך יאָר צוריק אין שייכות מיט דרומדיקע אַקעגן צפונדיקע דיאַלעקטן אין מזרח אשכנז; זע כ″ץ 1993: זז. 61 – 65;  1994: זז. 238 – 244, וואו מיר זעען אַז בײַם מהר″ל זײַנען דאָ אויך קאַבאַליסטישע נטיות און אײַנשטעלונגען לטובת דער הברה פון די דרומדיקע יידן פון מזרח אייראָפּע). 

להיפּוך צום מהר″ל, דעם בעל תפארת ישראל, איז דער בעל ערוך השולחן אין די צוגעשיקטע ציטאַטן אַ בעל הלכה, ניט קיין מקובל און ניט קיין מליץ יושר פאַר אַוועלכן ניט איז דיאַלעקט אָדער קיבוץ יידן. פּשוט אַווײַטערפירנדיק די שקלא⸗וטריאס פון זײַנע פאָראויסגייער וועגן דעם אַז אין די סאַמע הייליקסטע תפילות, ווי שמע⸗ישראל, דאַרף מען זיך סטאַרען אויפהיטן וואָס מער חילוקים און וואָס מער דײַטלעכקײַט: א און ע; ס מיט שׂ מיט תֿ. ווייסן ווייסן מיר זייער גוט, אַז ביי יידן אין באַברויסק און נאַוואַרעדאָק איז ניט געווען קיין שמץ פון אַ חילוק ניט צווישן אַרויסרייד פון א און עס און שׂ און תֿ.

אין צווייטן פון די געבראַכטע אויסצוגן זאָגט ר′ יחיאל מיכל עפּשטיין, קלאָר ווי דער טאָג, אַז היות ווי בײַ אונדז איז ניטאָ קיין חילוקים אינעם לשון, איז מען יוצא מיטן נ י ט דיפערענצירן. להיפּוך צודערצו, פרובירט ער אין ערשטן ציטאַט פאָרט אײַנפירן מען זאָל זײַן וואָס מער אָפּגעהיט בײַ קריאת שמע, וואָס איז אַזוי הייליק, דערמאָנענדיק צווישן אַנדערע דעם ענין א און ע און דעם ענין סשׂ און תֿ. האָט דער חשובער שואל השאלה רעכט, אַז ס′בעט זיך דאָ בפירוש, מען זאָל אַ פרעג טאָן: וואָס האָט דער מחבר דאָ בדעה געהאַט?

אַ סברא, אַז דער רמז אויפן ענטפער ליגט אין וואָרט להטעים (′באַטאָנען′, ′אַקצענטירן′, ′לייגן דעם טראָפּ′ וכדומה) און אין דער פראַזע יש להטעים (′מען באַדאַרף באַטאָנען′ וכדומה). אַז אַן אָפּגעהיטער אין אָט די זאַכן, לאָמיר אָנכאַפּן אַ בעל קריאה צי גלאַט אַ צדקותדיקער ייד, רעדט אַרויס בײַם זאָגן קרישמע קלאָרער, העכער, פּאַמעלעכער (אָדער במחילה מיט מער אַספּיראַציע) אַן ע (אַקעגן אַן א), אָדער לאָמיר אָנכאַפּן אַ ס (איידער אַ תֿ), איז דאָס פאַר מענטשן, וואָס בײַ זיי אין לשון איז דור דורות ניטאָ קיין זכר פון די אוראַלטע, היסטאָרישע דיפערענצירונגען (וואָס סײַ רבנים און סײַ פילאָלאָגן אַמפּערן זיך וועגן זיי עד היום), האָט דער ייד שוין איינמאָל יוצא געווען. באַטאָנונג פון איין קלאַנג מער איידער אַן אַנדערער, ענלעכער, קלאַנג אין אַן איינאיינציקער תפילה הייסט שוין פאַר⸗זיך אַ חילוק געמאַכט — מיט וועלכן מען איז שוין לחלוטין יוצא.

נ.ב. בײַ לייענער וואָס קומען צו צו אָט די ענינים פונעם געביט פון דער יידישער פילאָלאָגיע און קולטור געשיכטע, איז וויכטיק האַלטן פאַרן אויג אַז דאָס איז פאַרשטייט זיך, גאָר אַן אַנדער ר′ יחיאל מיכל עפּשטיין איידער דער רב אין פּראָסטיץ סוף זיבעצעטן און די ערשטע יאָרן פון אַכצעטן יאָרהונדערט וועמענס כתבים וועגן דער יידישער שפּראַך זיינען אַן אָביעקט פון הייסער דיסקוסיע פון זינט ישראל צינבערג האָט אים פאַרן ברייטערן אינטעליגענטן יידיש⸗לייענענדיקן עולם מגלה געווען אין 1928, אין צווייטן באַנד פון די ווילנער פילאָלאָגישע שריפטן, אין זײַן אַרבעט „דער קאַמף פאַר יידיש אין דער אַלט⸗יידישער ליטעראַטור“ (צינבערג 1928: זז. 69 – 106, דאָרטן 95 – 96) וואָס האָט געפירט צו אַ סך דיסקוסיעס ביזן הײַנטיקן טאָג (זע כ″ץ 2007: 122 – 124, 129, 158; און צו מראה⸗מקומות צו די ביידע צדדים וואָס אינעם וויכוח אין די הערות צו זז. 122 – 124 וואָס דאָרטן, ז. 404; אויך כ″ץ 2015: 161 – 167, 203, 211, 307, 314).

ווילנע, ה′ אב תשע″ו \ דעם 9טן אויגוסט 2016

לעצטע הגהה: י″ב אב תשע″ו \ דעם 16טן אויגוסט 2016


זלמן רייזענס דעת הכלל וואָס שייך דעם סטאַנדאַרדן יידיש און דעם עקסטרעמען פּוריזם


פּראָפעסאָר סטעפן קראָג (אַרהוס, דענעמאַרק) שרײַבט:

אין אײַער יידישער סטיליסטיק (קאַץ 1993: 177) זאָגט איר, אז צווישן די אַנטי⸗דײַטשמעריסטן זײַנען באָראָכאָוו, פּרילוצקי און רייזען געווען די מעסיקע. וואָס איז שייך די ערשטע צוויי בין איך מסכים מיט אײַך, אָבער רייזען? דעם אמת געזאָגט האָב איך גיכער דעם אײַנדרוק, אַז ער געפינט זיך צווישן די גאָר שטרענגע אַנטי⸗דײַטשמעריסטן. איך פאַררוף זיך קודם כל אויף די ווײַטערדיקע שריפטן זײַנע: גראַמאַטיק פון דער יידישער שפּראַך (רייזען 1920); ווען זאָל מען ניצן ′אלס′?“ (רייזען 1938א). נאָרמע, יוצא⸗מן⸗הכלל, גראַמאטישע דובלעטן: נאָטיצן צו דעם ענין נאָרמירונג פון יידישן שפּראַכבאַנוץ“ (רייזען 1938ב).

מײַן בקשה: צי קענט איר מיר אפשר געבן צו וויסן אַנדערע אַרבעטן פון רייזען, וואָס וואָלטן געקענט אונטערשטיצן אײַער שטעלונג, אז רייזען איז געווען א מעסיקער אַנטי⸗דײַטשמעריסט?


אונדזער חבר, דער חשובער דענעמאַרקער מלומד, פּראָפ. סטעפן קראָג, רירט דאָ אָן אַ העכסט אינטערעסאַנטע טעמע, דהיינו: די אָפּשאַצונג פון יידישע ווערטער און קאָנסרטוקציעס, וואָס (א) זײַנען אַרײַן אין דער שפּראַך ערשט אין נײַנצעטן יאָרהונדערט (און האָבן במילא ניט דורכגעמאַכט די דיאַלעקטישע און אַלגעמיינע אַנטוויקלונג פון די אַלטע תושבים) און וואָס (ב) זײַנען געווען נוטה למחלוקת, צי גלאַט מוטל בספק בײַ אָפּגעהטע באַנוצער פון יידיש (להיפּוך צו דעם נײַ⸗דײַטשישן עלעמענט אין יידיש וואָס איז בײַם ברייטן דעת הכלל לחלוטין כשר, ווי אַשטייגער: „אויסנאַם“, „אוראַלט“, „באַוועגונג“, „זיצונג“, „פּרעכטיק“, „קינדהייט“, „רונד“, „שפּראַך“, וכדומה).

וואָס אַן אמת, אָדאָרטן וואו ס′איז אַ נוטה למחלוקת גייט דאָס אין ערשטן — און אין לעצטן — סך⸗הכל אין אַן ענין פון עסטעטיק און דעם חוש פון דעם וואָס רעדט אָדער שרײַבט. איינער נוצט „עלנט“, אַ צווייטן געפעלט בעסער „איינזאַם“ און אַ דריטער שפּירט אַן איידעלן סעמאַנטישן ניואַנס אַצווישן זיי. דערפאַר זײַנען דאָ אויף דער וועלט פאַרשיידענע סטילן, ווי עס האָט דאָס אַזוי שיין אויסגעדריקט ל. שאַפּיראָ אין זײַן מײַסטערישן „דער שרײַבער גייט אין חדר“ (1945).

פון שפּראך⸗געפיל, פון סוביעקטיוון תופס זײַן נייטראַלקײַט, שיינקײַט און מאיוסקײַט, וועט קאַם אַ חידוש זײַן אַז בײַ אָן אַ שיעור אָפּגעהיטע יידישע פּען⸗מענטשן, אַזעלכע וואָס באַציען זיך צום יידישן וואָרט מיט יראת הכבוד און ווען⸗ניט⸗ווען מיט האַרצקלאַפּעניש ממש, ס′וועלן פונדעסטוועגן פאַראַן זײַן פאַרשיידענע שטימונגען, פאַרשיידענע געפילן צי פאַרשייגענע זשאַנרען און סיטואַציעס, און אַוודאי און אַוודאי איז בײַם רוב יחידים אפילו פאַראַן אַ וואַריאַציע אינעם געפיל און עסטעטישן באַנעם אין משך פון די תקופות און תקופהלעך וואָס אין גאַנג פון די אויסגעלעבטע יאָרן דאָ אויף דער וועלט.

צומאָל איז די וואַריאַציע באַוואוסטזיניק געווענדט אין ברייטערע פּעריאָדן אין דער געשיכטע. מיט הונדערט יאָר צוריק, האָט זלמן רייזען, אין זײַן קלאַסישער גראַמאַטיק פון דער יידישער שפּראַך: ערשטער טייל (רייזען 1920), באַמערקט אַשטייגער, אַז: 

„אַלץ יסוד פון דעם מאָדערנעם ליטעראַרישן יידיש איז גענומען דערעיקרשט דער ליטווישער דיאַלעקט.“

(רייזען 1920: 68§, ז. 34)

אָנגעבנדיק אַלץ איינע פון די סיבות פאַרדערפאַר:

„אויך מחמת דעם, וואָס דער ליטווישער וואָקאַליזם שטייט נעענטער צו דער דײַטשער שפּראַך, וואָס אונטער איר השפּעה האָבן זיך געפונען די שאַפער פון אונדזער נײַער ליטעראַטור“

(אָדאָרטן גופא)

געכאַפּט האָט ער פאַרדערפאַר אַ האַרבן פּסק בײַם טשאַמפּיאָן פונעם פּוילישן יידיש, שלמה בירנבוים, אין ערשטן באַנד פון די ווילנער פילאָלאָגישע שריפטן

„כ′וויל דאָ ניט אַרויסדרינגען פון דעם רושם, וואָס ליטוויש [= ′דער ליטווישער דיאַלעקט פון יידיש′] מאַכט אויף דײַטשע אויערן; כ′האָב שוין אָפט געהערט זאָגן, אַז ליטוויש איז אַ סך שווערער צו פאַרשטיין, ווי פּויליש⸗דרומדיק, אַז ס′קלינגט פרעמדער. פאַר אָביעקטיווע קריטעריען דאַרף מען נעמען פאָנעטישע פאַקטן. און דאָ, דאַכט זיך מיר, איז דער הסכם צווישן פּויליש⸗דרומדיק און צווישן דײַטש גרעסער ווי צווישן ליטוויש און דײַטש: פּויליש⸗דרומדיק און דײַטש האָבן בשותפות דעם חילוק פון לאַנגע און קורצע וואָקאַלן און בכלל אויך דעם אָרט פון קורץ און לענג. דאָס איז אַ סך כאַראַקעטיריסטישער אויף צו פאַרגלײַכן, ווי דאָס איכות פון די וואָקאַלן און דיפטאָנגען […]“

(בירנבוים 1926: 91-92)

נאָר וואָדען, נאָך דער מלחמה, זיך אַמפּערנדיק שוין מיט אוריאל ווײַנרײַכן (1951) אין דער סוגיא סטאַנדאַרדע הברה (נאָרמירטע אויסשפּראַך), ווײַטער אין תחום פון צפון ∼ דרום, איז שוין בירנבוימען געגאַנגען אין דערווײַזן, איפּכא מסתברא, אַז דער דרומדיקער וואָקאַליזם איז אָן אַ שיעור ווײַטער פון דײַטש, מחמת, רחמנא לצלן:

„מיר זעען אַז צוויי⸗דריטל פונעם וואָקאַליזם זענען אין צפון יידיש אַלצאיינס מיטן דײַטשן וואָקאַליזם און דאָס רעשט איז נענטער צו דײַטש ווי דער דרום⸗יידישער וואָקאַליזם.“

(בירנבוים 1953: 111; [צו דער דיסקוסיע אין ראַם פון „צפון כנגד דרום“ זע אויך קאַץ 1994: 216])

אָט אַזאַ מין אַלכסונדיקער אַרײַנפיר, וועגן אַרויסרייד פון דיאַלעקטן אין ליטעראַרישן⸗סטאַנדאַרדן יידיש קען קומען ווי אַן אָנווײַז אויפן סוביעקטיוון כאַַראַקטער וועגן מעמד פון דײַטש — און במילא דײַטשמעריש — אין דער יידישער פילאָלאָגיע. ווען ס′האַנדלט זיך אין לעקסיק, און אינעם סכום ווערטער וואָס זײַנען נוטה למחלוקת עד היום, קען מען נאָך הײַנט טרעפן אַן עקסטרעם⸗פּוריסטיש פליגעלע (זע קאַץ 2019).

אַריבערגייענדיק צו זלמן רייזענען און אַלעמערשטנס, די פּובליקאַציעס וואָס דער חשובער שואל רעכנט אויסעט. איינער פון די גרונט⸗מאָטיוון מחמת וועלכע רייזענס גראַמאַטיק פון 1920 וועט אייביק פאַרבלײַבן אַ קלאַסיש ווערק אין הלכות יידישע פילאָלאָגיע איז די אינטואיטיווע גאונות מיט וועלכער רייזען האָט ריכטיק דערכאַפּט און יסודותדיק באַשריבן דעם  ד ע ת  ה כ ל ל  פון די אַלע לינגוויסטיש⸗פּראָגרעסיווע עלעמענטן אין דער צעזייט⸗און⸗צעשפּרייטער וועלט פון יידיש, אֲַרויסוואַרפנדיק דאָס אַלץ וואָס דער דעת הכלל בײַ געניטע לערער, שרײַבער, רעדאַקטאָרן, אינטעליגענטן און באַוואוסטזיניקע אוהבי יידיש האָבן געפּסלט. אַכלל: אַקעגן  י ע נ ע ם דײַטשמעריש („דיזער“, „מאָנד“, „מונד“, „געסטערן“; אַזעלכע שרײַבונגען ווי: „יאָהרען“, „געהען“) איז ער שטאָל און אײַזן. נאָר וואָס, ניטאָ בײַ אים קיין שמץ פונעם  א י ב ע ר ג ע ט ר י ב ע נ ע ם  פּוריזם. אינעם סאַמע ווערק וואָס פּסלט אַזוי בוֹלט די פּאַראַזיטישע דײַטשמעריזירונג, באַנוצט זיך רייזען אינגאַנצן פרײַ פון די קאָמפּלעקסן (וואָס האָבן זיך דער עיקר געטראָפן בײַ געלערנטע וואָס זײַנען אויסגעוואַקסן אין דײַטש ריידנדיקע סביבות) מיט די אַלע ווערטער וואָס זײַנען אַרײַן פון מאָדערנעם דײַטש אין נײַנצעטן יאָרהונדערט און זײַנען שוין אין 1920 געווען היימישע תושבים אין לשון יידיש, בתוכם: „אומדאַנקבאַר“ (ז. 71), „אומפאַרענדערט“ (ז. 79), „אויסגאַבע“ (.ז. 57), „אויסשפּראַך“ (ז. 32), „אויפגאַבע“ (ז. 25); „אייגנשאַפט“ (ז. 3), „איינפאַכקײַט“ (ז. 109), „אַלס“ (ז. 93), „אָנווענדונג“ (ז. 141), „באלעסטיקט“ (ז. 135), „דערשײַנונג“ (ז. 80), „ווירקונג“ (ז. 21), „זעלבשטענדיק“ (ז. 31), „לאַגע“ (ז. 1) „לעבנס⸗באַדינגונגען“ (ז. 2), „מערקווערדיק“ (ז. 28), „ענדגילטיק“ (ז. 4), „פאָלקסטימלעך“ (ז. 27), „פאַראַנטוואָרטלעכקײַט“ (ז. 156), „פאָרמען“ (ז. 95), „פאַרענדערונג“ (ז. 48), „פרוכטבאַר“ (ז. 30), „שפּראַכלעך“ (ז. 16), „שטאַנדפּונקט“ (ז. 20), „שטרעבונג“ (ז. 122), „שילדערן“ (ז. 27), וכדומה נאָך אָן אַ שיעור.

גייען מיר אַריבער צום שואלס צווייטן ציטירטן מקור, דעם אַרטיקל „ווען זאָל מען ניצן ′אַלס′?“ אינעם זשורנאַל יידיש פאַר אַלע אין 1938. דער פאָרגעשלאָגענער איסור געהערט ניט רייזענען, נאָר דעם עצם מחבר פונעם אַרטיקל, מאַקס ווײַנרײַך (1938). פאַרקערט, רייזען קומט דאָ אין זײַן  נ אָ ט י ץ וואָס נאָכן אַרטיקל אַלעמערשטנס מקיל זײַן, לינדערן, הגם מיט אַן אָפּגעהיטענעם נוסח אין יענער תקופה פון ייוואָאיססטישן פּוריזם האַרט פאַר דער מלחמה. שרײַבט רייזען: 

„ווען מ′זאָל אַפילו אײַנזען אַ פּוריזם אין דער טענדענץ דורכאויס אויסצוקומען אָן דעם ווערטל ′אַלס′, מוז מען אָבער מודה זײַן, אז מ’נוצט עס שוין בײַ אונדז איבער דער מאָס […]“

(רייזען 1938ב: 21-22 [טשיקאַווע: דאָ געחתמעט „זלמן רייזין“ און אַזוי אינעם אינהאַלט צום נומער הגם אין דער אינהאַלט⸗רשימה צום גאַנצן באַנד (פאַר 1938) שטייט כנהוג: „רייזען“ — אַזאַ צײַט⸗שטימונג, וד″ל])

און ברענגט אַראָפּעט דוגמאות פאַר דעם אַז ניואַנסירטע וואַריאַנטן וואָס שטייען אין סכנה פאַרלאָרן ווערן אַז מ′וועט צופיל אָנווענדן ′אַלס′; (אַ געלונגענעם סך⸗הכל מיט אַ רײַכן מאַטעריאַל ברענגט אַראָפּעט יודל מאַרק אין גרויסן ווערטערבוך (באַנד III, ז. 1384). אין נאָטיץ צו ווײַנרײַכס איסור, קומט רייזען פאָרט ווי אַ (אַלס?) — מקיל.

קומען מיר אָנעט צום לעצט⸗געבראַכטן מראה⸗מקום, רייזענס אַרבעט „נאָרמע, יוצא⸗מן⸗הכלל, גראַמאַטישע דובלעטן“ (רייזען 1938ב). רייזען איז ניט געווען קיין טעאָרעטישער לינגוויסט; ער האָט זיך אָבער פאַרמאָסטן אין אָט דער אַרבעט, מיט אַ סך דערפאָלג, באַטראַכטן דעם ענין פון וואַריאַציעס לויט דער מאָס פון אַנאַלאָגיע (לויטן כלל) און אנאָמאַליע (די יוצא⸗מן⸗הכללן). ער פירט אויסעט, אַז בעת לעקסישע וואַריאַצעס (דער עיקר פון אונדזערע דיאַלעקטן) באַרײַכערן די שפּראַך, זײַנען גראַמאַטישע דובלעטן אָפטמאָל אַן הכבדה (אַ לאַסט?), און ער שפּילט זיך, אַזוי ווי טעאָרעטיקער שפּילן זיך כדרכם אינטעלעקטועל אין זייערע אַרבעטן, מיט אופנים און מאָסן אויף אָפּקלײַבן פאַרן ברייטערן באַנוץ פון איין וואַריאַנט צי אַן אַנדערן (דער גרעסטער טייל דוגמאות האָבן צו טאָן מיטן עבר פון ווערבן, די טיפּן „געשאָנקען“ קעגנאיבער „געשענקט“). דעם טערמין „דײַטשמעריש“ ווענדט ער אָן זייער שפּאָרעוודיק, בנוגע ווערטער וואָס זײַנען ט אַ ק ע אויסגעמיטן געוואָרן בײַם רוב אָפּגעהיטע שרײַבער, למשל: 

„גרײַזן, שוין דײַטשמערישע, זײַנען אַזעלכע פאָרמעס ווי „אַנטשיידן“ אָנשטאָט „אַנטשיידט“ (אויב מען קען בכלל נוצן דאָס וואָרט אין יידיש), ′געשיד′ אָנשטאָט ′געשיידט′“.

(רייזען 1938ב: 175)

בײַם סוף פונעם זאַץ גייט אַ שטערנדל (*) וואָס פירט צו אָט וועלכער הערה אונטערן זײַטל:

„גלײַכבאַרעכטיקט דערווײַלע זײַנען נאָך די אַדיעקטיוון ′פאַרשיידן′ (ליטוויש) און ′פאַרשידן′ (מיטל⸗יידיש) [ּצענטראַל⸗מזרח יידיש — פּויליש]“.

רייזען רוקט אַרויס דעם פּרינציפּ, אַז:

„שטענדיק איז בילכער די פאָרמע, וואָס איז אַ רעזולטאַט פון אַן אַנטוויקלונגס⸗פּראָצעס אויפן באָׁדן פון דער יידישער שפּראַך גופא, וואָס שטימט מיט די אַלגעמיינע שפּראַך⸗פאָרמעס פון יידיש“

(אָדאָרטן, ז. 176)

אין די ווײַטערדיקע פּאַראַגראַפן ברענגט ער בײַשפּילן פון די דובלעטן וואָס ער איז דערבײַ אויסן: „געטרײַשאַפט“ ∼ „טרײַהײַט“, „גאָט צו דאַנקען“ ∼ „גאָט זײַ דאַנק“. ער זאָגט זיך אויך אַרויס פאַר „נוציק“ לגבי „ניצלעך“ און „שפּראַכיק“ לגבי „שפּראַכלעך“.

נאָר אומזיסט וועט איר זוכן אַ פּרואוו צו פּסלען „געפאַר“ (ווײַל ס′איז פאַראַן „סכנה“), צו פּסלען „באַזוך“ (ווײַל מ′קען ערגעץ טרעפן „וויזיט“), אָדער פּסלען „פאַרדעכטיק“ אַלמאַי מ′קען דאָך אָנווענדן „חשוד“. מכל שכן וועט ער ניט גיין פּסלען „שטאַנדפּונקט“ ווײַל מ′קען צוקלערן „קוקווינקל“, צי „זעלבסטמאָרד“ ווײַל מ′קען דאָך אַרויסציען פון אַרבל „אַליינמאָרד“. דאָס הייסט ניט אַז רייזען איז ניט געווען גרייט עקספּערימענטירן מיט נייטיקע און געוואונטשענע נײַשאַפונגען. ס′הייסט אַז ער איז ניט געגאַנגען  פּ ס ל ע ן  גוטע יידישע ווערטער, אַלמאי מען קען פון זיי „פּטור ווערן און  מ אַ כ ן  יידיש ווײַטער פון דײַטש“ ווי עס האָבן בעצם געפאָׁׁדערט די עקסטעם⸗פּוריסטישע יידישע לינגוויסטן וואָס האָבן זיך אויסגעהאָדעוועט אין דײַטש ריידנדיקע סביבות, ווי דערמאָנט אויבן, און וואָס בײַ זיי איז פאַרבליבן אַזא מין קאָמפּלעקס.

ווילט איר אַפילו ווײַטער שטודירן אָט די אַרבעט רייזענס, דערשינען אין 1938, ווען די ייוואָ קרײַזן זײַנען געווען פאַרכאַפּט מיט עקסטרעמען נאָרמאַטיוויזם (סײַ אין לעקסיק סײַ אין אויסלייג), וועט איר טרעפן אַפילו  ד אָ  אַ שפּּאָר ביסל בײַשפילן פון רייזענס גאָלדענעם שפּראַך⸗חוש, למשל:

„ס′איז אַ גוזמא צו האַלטן דעם ווערב „קלעטערן“ פאַר דײַטשמעריש, לעל הפּחות פאַר מײַן דיאַלעקט — דעם רײַסישן“

(אָדאָרטן, ז. 178)

זלמן רייזען, אַ סברא די באַליבטסטע פּערזענלעכקײַט (ניט „פּאַרשוינלעכקײַט“) אין די צווישנמלחמהדיקע יידישיסטישע סביבות אין ווילנע, איז כידוע געווען דער מחבר פון אַ ריי יסודותדיקע ווערק וואָס בלײַבן עד היום קלאַסיש: אַם סאַמע באַוואוסטן, זײַן פירבענדיקער לעקסיקאָן פון דער יידישער ליטעראַטור, פּרעסע און פילאָלאָגיע (רייזען 1926 — 1929) וואָס ווערן ביזן הײַנטיקן טאָג בײַ קענער גערופן סתם: „רייזען“; זײַן היסטאָריש⸗ליטעראַרישע זאַמלונג, פון מענדעלסאָן ביז מענדעלע (רייזען 1923) איבערן בראשית פּראָצעס פון דער מאָדערנער יידישער ליטעראַטור, און נאָך אַ סך.

רייזענס צוגאַנג צו פראַגן פון באַנוץ איז דורכאויס געווען דער געזונטער צוגאַנג פון צוקוקן זיך, וואָס ס’טוען די בעסטע (געמיינט דאָ אויך: סאַמע אָפּגעהיטע) שרײַבער, רעדאַקטאָרן, פּען⸗מענטשן, און עס אויפזאַמלען, קאָדיפיצירן, דערלאַנגען דעם לייענער און דעם לערער און דעם סטודענט. דאָס טוט רייזען עד היום, העכער אַכציק יאָר נאָך זײַן גרויליקן אומקום בײַ די סאָוועטן (וואָס האָבן אים דאָ אַרעסטירט און דעפּאָרטירט בעת זייער ערשטער אָקופּאַציע פון דער שטאָט אין דער תקופה פון דער צווייטער וועלט מלחמה, אין סעפּטעמבער און אָקטאָבער פון 1939). אפשר מער ווי אומעטום זעט זיך עס אויף די בלעטער פון זײַן טאָג⸗צײַטונג: דער ווילנער טאָג. ס′וואָלט געווען ממש כדאי זאַמלען זײַנע אייגענע לענגערע אַרבעטן אין דער צײַטונג און זיי אַרויסגעבן ווי אַ בוך. אין דער אָרטאָגראַפיע, אין דער לעקסיק, אינעם באַנוץ, וועט מען דאָרטן טרעפן דעם בעסטן זשורנאליסטישן יידיש וואָס אויפן ערדקוגל.

ווילט איר אַ קוק טאָן זלמן רייזענס לעקסיק אין זײַן לעבנס⸗שעדעווער, דעם פירבענדיקן לעקסיקאָן, אַרויס אין סאַמע בלי⸗צײַט פון יידיש אין דער צווישנמלחמהדיקער תקופה, וועט איר אויף שריט און טרעפן אַזעלכע יידישע ווערטער ווי: „אויסגאַבע“; „אײַנפלוס“; „אונטערהאַנדלונגען“; „אַנטהאַלטן“; „אַנטוישונג“; „אויפלאַגע“; „אומגעלונגען“; „אַלס“; „באַזוך“; „באַראַטונג“; „באַרירונג“; „געפאַר“; „גרינדן“; „דאַן“; „דערפאַרונג“; „טעטיקײַט“; „לאַגע“; „ענדלעך“; „פאָלקסטימלעך“; „פאַרבאָטן“; „פאַרנאַכלעסיקן“; „פאַרעפנטלעכן“; „צוציאונגס⸗קראַפט“; „רײַזע“; „שיכט“.

בשעת מעשה וועט איר אויך טרעפן אַזעלכע ווערטער ווי: „בפרט“, „געניט“; „השפּעה“, „לסוף“; „מחמת“; „נסיעה“; „סכנה“; „פּשוט“; „פאַרווערט“; „תקופה“.

וואָס נאָך? אײַ, איר וועט ניט טרעפן „אָנפאַנגען“ (אויף: „אָנהייבן“), „לעזער“ (אויף: „לייענער“), „שפּראַכע“ (אויף: „שפּראַך“ צי „לשון“), „הייראַטן“ (אויף „חתונה האָבן“), צי „האָכצײַט“ (אויף „חתונה“).

איז מאי קא משמע לן? פאַרשטייט זיך אַז אין די העכער הונדערט יאָר פון זינט רייזענס ווילנער גראַמאַטיק (פון 1920) און אין משך פון קאַרגן יאָרהונדערט פון זינט דעם לעקסיקאָן (1926-1929) האָט די ליטעראַרישע שפּראַך דורכגעמאַכט שינויים. פאַרשטייט זיך אַז אין ראַם פון ליטעראַרישן, סטאַנדאַרדן יידיש שבכתב זײַנען פאַראַן, ווי בײַ לײַטן, אַ גאַנצע ריי סטילן — פּערזענלעכע, זשאַנערשע, סאָציאַלע, רעליגיעזע, דיאַלעקטישע, געאָגראַפישע און נאָך. פונדעסטוועגן בלײַבט עס באַשײַמפּערלעך, אַז זלמן רייזען האָט געניאַל קריסטאַליזירט, געשילדערט און באַנוצט אין זײַנע מײַסטערווערק דעם שענסטן און ריכטיקסטן יידיש, אַ שביל הזהב בפירוש, ווײַט פון דער דײַטשמעריזירונג פון דער פּרעסע און אַנדערע סביבות, און, דאָס איז דער עיקר צום חשובן שואלס שאלה: פּונקט אַזוי ווײַט פון עקסטרעמיסטישן פּּוריזם.

הערה א: ווי ס′קען זיך מאַכן, איז מען צו מיר געקומען מיט אַזאַ מין פראַגע לגבי זלמן רייזענען מיט קאַרגע דרײַסיק יאָר צוריק; מײַן ענטפער איז דערשינען אין איטשע גאָלדבערגס ע″ה יידישער קולטור (קאַץ 1992: באַמערקונגען וועגן רייזען, ז. 43).

הערה ב: וועגן וואָרט „אַלס“ — אינעם נײַעם ענגלש⸗יידישן ווערטערבוך (וואָס האַלט ערשט אין גאַנג פון דער אַרבעט, צוביסלעך…), ווערט גענוצט „אַלץ“ לויט אַן עלטערן פאָלקישן אויסלייג וואָס בויט זיך אויפן אַרויסרייד בײַ אַ היפּשן טייל.

הערה ג: אַ רשימה פונעם משיבס אַרבעטן אויפן געביט פון דער יידישער סטיליסטיק טרעפט מען אָדאָ.

ראש חודש אדר תשפ″א \  דעם 12טן פעברואַר 2021



מיכאל מאַסאַרסקי קלערט אויף וועגן נאָמען פון שטעטל שומילינע (Shumíline), וואָס צווישן וויטעבסק און פּאָלאָצק 


איך שרײַב װעגן דעם נאָמען פון אײנעם אַ שטעטל אין דער װיטעבסקער גובערניע. עס גײט דאָ די רײד װעגן אַ שטעטל, װאָס געפינט זיך צװישן װיטעבסק און פּאָלאָצק און איז אָנגעװיזן אױף מאַפּעס אינעם אַטלאַס פון ליטווישן יידיש אַלץ: Shumelíne.

אין אָט דעם שטעטל איז מיר אױסגעקומען צו זײַן אַ סך מאָל, און איך האָב אַפילו געלעבט דאָרטן אַ געװיסע צײַט אין די קינדערשע יאָרן. און סײַ דאָרטן, סײַ אין די אַרומיקע ערטער האָב איך קײנמאָל ניט געהערט, אַז מ′זאָל עס אַרויסריידן מיטן אַקצענט אױפן פאַרלעצטן טראַף און מיטן װאָקאַל „ע“ אינעם צװײטן. אױף אַלע אָרטיקע לשונות (רוסיש,  װײַסרוסיש און יידיש) פלעגט מען אָנרופן דעם שטעטל שיער ניט אױפן זעלבן אופן: Shumílina אָדער Shumíline (פאָנעטיש: šumílinǝ), ד.ה. מיטן אַקצענט אױפן װאָקאַל „אי“ ([i]), וואָס אינעם צװײטן טראַף. די שריפטלעכע פאָרמען דערפון זײַנען  Шуміліна (אױף װײַסרוסיש), Шумилино (אױף רוסיש), און שומילינע (אױף יידיש).

װאָס שייך דעם נוסח פון נאָמען, וואָס מען טרעפט איצט אויף די מאַפּעס, Shumelíne, שטאַמט דאָס אַפּנים פונעם „געאָגראַפישן װערטערבוך (לעקסיקאָן) פונעם קעניגרײַך פּױלן און אַנדערע סלאַװישע לענדער“ (Słownik geograficzny Królestwa Polskiego i innych krajów słowiańskich), באַנד XII, יאָר 1892, ז. 73, װאו עס שטײט געשריבן בזה הלשון:

Szumielino, wś, powiat horodecki, przy linii dr. żel. dynabursko-witebskiej. Na gruntach wsi znajduje się st. dr. żel., zwana Sierocino.

איבערגעזעצט אויף יידיש:

שומיעלינאָ, אַ דאָרף, אויעזד האָראָדאָק, בײַ דער אײַזנבאַן⸗ליניע דינאַבורג — װיטעבסק. עס געפינט זיך אויפן אָרט פונעם דאָרף די אײַזנבאַן⸗סטאַנציע מיטן נאָמען סיעראָצינאָ.“

קעגן דער השערה, אַז שומילינע האָט אַמאָל געקענט האָבן אַזאַ פּאָלאָניזירטן נאָמען, קען איך אָבער ברענגען אַ פּאָר אַרגומענטן.

‏‏‏זעט אױס, אַז ס′רוב ‏פאָנעטיש⸗אַדאַפּטירטע יידישע נוסחאות פון די נעמען פון רײַסישע ישובים האָבן זיך אויסגעפורעמט אױפן סמך פון זײערע פאָלקסטימלעך⸗מינדלעכע װאַריאַנטן, װאָס‏ עקזיסטירן אין אָרטיקע דיאַלעקטן פון װײַסרוסיש. װי ס′איז באַװאוסט, פאַלט ‏כמעט שטענדיק דער אַקצענט אין פּױלישע װערטער אױפן פאַרלעצטן טראַף,‏ ‏ניט ווי כאַראַקטעריסטיש פאַר די מזרח⸗סלאַװישע שפּראַכן. ‏װאָס שייך „שומילינע“ און די נעמען פון אַנדערע ישובים אין יענע מקומות, װעלכע געהערן צום דריטן מין און ענדיקן זיך מיט ино־ \ іна־ \ ⸗ינע, האָבן זיי שיער ניט אַלע דעם אַקצענט אױפן לעצטן שורש⸗טראַף‏ און ניט אױף דער ענדונג (סוף⸗טראַף), אַשטײגער: Sirótino ,Vétrino ,Uzhlyátino ,Yázvino ,Byválino און אַזױ װײַטער. ‏גאָר װײניק ישובים דאָרטן (איבערהױפּט, די אַמאָליקע פאָלװאַרקעס און מאַיאָנטיקעס פון פּױלישע פּריצים) טראָגן נאָך אַלץ‏ זײערע אַלטע פּױלישע אָדער פאַרפּױלישטע נעמען, למשל, Teolíno (אַרױסגערעדט בײַ די אָרטיקע תושבים Tavalína).

אין פאַרגלײַך מיטן דערבײַאיקן „אַלטן“ שטעטל סיראָטינע1, וואָס האָט באַקומען‏ די אַזױגערופענע „מאַגדעבורג⸗רעכט“ נאָך אין דער „פּױלישער תקופה“, אין 1767, איז שומילינע געװען אַ רעלאַטיװ „יונגער“ ישוב, אָן קײן שום פּױלישע פאַרבינדונגען. װי אַ קלײן דאָרף איז עס‏ דערמאָנט געװאָרן ‏אין דאָקומענטן ערשט אין דער צװײטער העלפט פונעם 19טן יאָרהונדערט. די אַנטװיקלונג פון אָט דעם ישוב האָט זיך פאַקטיש אָנגעהױבן נאָכדעם, װי מען האָט דורכגעלײגט דאָרטן די אײַזנבאַן⸗ליניע אין 1866 און געבױט שפּעטער אַ וואָקזאַל2. אין אַ שטעטל מיט אַ היפּש ביסל יידישע תושבים האָט שומילינע זיך פאַרװאַנדלט ערשט אין די סאָװעטישע צײַטן, באַזונדערס נאָכן יאָר 1924, װען עס איז געװאָרן דער אַדמיניסטראַטיװער צענטער פון אַ ראַיאָן. ‏

1אַגב, די הײמשטאָט פון מײַן טאַטן, ראובן בן⸗אליעזר מאַסאַרסקי, װעלכער איז געװען אַ חורבן⸗געליטענער און אַ װעטעראַן פון פּאַרטיזאַנער⸗קאַמף קעגן די נאַצישע שונאים אין מזרח⸗װײַסרוסלאַנד בעת דער צװײטער וועלט⸗מלחמה.

2די צװײשטאָקיקע געבײַדע פונעם וואָקזאַל אין שומילינע, אַפּנים געבױט אין 1886, איז על⸗פּּּּי נס געבליבן גאַנץ בעת דער מלחמה און װערט צװעקמעסיק אויסגענוצט ביזן הײַנטיקן טאָג. ער האָט געטראָגן דעם נאָמען „סיראָטינאָ“ ביז 1961. אָט איז אַן אַלטע שװאַרץ⸗װײַסע פאָטאָ פונעם וואָקזאַל פון אומבאַקאַנטער צײַט. כ′האָב זי גענומען פונעם װעבזײַטל פון דער איצטיקער שומילינער אַדמיניסטראַציע. די געבײַדע זעט אױס דאָרטן ‏כמעט‏ אַזױ װי איך געדענק זי פון מײַנע קינדערשע יאָרן. 

און אָט אַזוי זעט אויס דער בנין בײַם הײַנטיקן טאָג: 

אויפן אָנדענק⸗טאָוול לכבוד דעם ערשטן טראַנספּאָרט⸗מיניסטער פון רוסלאַנד, פּאַװעל מעלניקאָװ, וואָס פאַר דער װאָקזאַל⸗געבײַדע אין שומילינע. שטײט געשריבן בזה הלשון: דעם 17טן אָקטאָבער 1866 האָט ער מיטגעטײלט אין אַ טעלעגראַם צום אימפּעראַטאָר אַלעקסאַנדער דעם צװײטן: „…איך בין גליקלעך צו אינפאָרמירן אײַער אימפּעראַטאָרישער מײַעסטעט, אַז הײַנט⸗צו⸗טאָג, נאָכן פּראַװען אַ גאָטסדינסט, דרײַסיק מינוט פאַר צען אינדערפרי, איז דער פאַרקער פון פּאָלאָצק ביז קיין װיטעבסק אויפגעעפנט געװאָרן…“.  צװישן די דאָרטן געבויטע סטאַנציעס עס איז געװען אױך די סטאַנציע סיראָטינע (זינט 1962: שומילינע). דאָס דורכלײגן פון דער אײַזנבאַן⸗ליניע האָט באַגינסטיקט די אַנטװיקלונג פון אָט דעם שטעטל. ‏


אַ האַרציקן יישר⸗כח פאַר דער ממש אויפקלערנדיקער און העכסט⸗אינטערעסאַנטער אויסבעסערונג וואָס וועט מירצעשעם אַרײַן אין די קומעדיקע נוסחאות פון דער מאַפּע. אגב האָפט מען, אַז מיט דער צײַט וועט מען קענען צוגעבן, אויסער דעם וואַריאַנט (אַמאָל צוויי וואַריאַנטן) וואָס מען קען שטעלן אויף דער מאַפּע גופא, אַ רשימה וואַריאַנטן מיט אָנווײַזונגען פון וועלכע קוואַלן זיי שטאַמען אָפּעט. די כוונה אינעם אַטלאַס איז צו באַזירן אַלע אָרט⸗נעמען אויף דעם וואָס מיר האָבן געהערט בײַ די אינפאָרמאַנטן גופא בעת די עקספּעדיציעס, ניט פון אַוועלכע ניט איז מקורות שבכתב. אַ צרה נאָר, וואָס אין אַ סך פאַלן איז דער אינפאָרמאַנט ניט פון יענעם שטעטל גופא, נאָר פון דער זעלביקער געגנט אָדער אַפילו נאָר אין זעלביקן לאַנד. אַדאַנק אַזעלכע תיקונים פון פרײַנדלעכע לייענער איז די מדרגה אַקוראַטקײַט לגבי די פאַקטישע אָרטיקע נעמען האָפנטלעך אַ שטײַגנדיקע.

וועגן אומבאַטאָנטן וואָקאַל אין דער ייוואָ טראַנסקריפּציע סיסטעם: אַפילו ווען ער איז נוטה צו i איז מען זיך נוהג צו נוצן דעם e וואָס דאַרף מיט זיך פאָרשטעלן אַ ריי קלאַנגען וואָס גייען אַרײַן אינעם באַגריף שווא — ǝ (מיט אַ סך אונטערנוסחאות, וואָס אין יידישע דיאַלעקטן זײַנען זיי במילא נוטה צו i וואָקאַלן. דער מחבר פון תיקון⸗טעות איז אָבער אויך גערעכט, אויב ער איז מרמז אַז ס′איז פאָרט אפשר ניט דער בעסטער אויסוועג, דעמאָלט, אַשטייגער אין אַ סך ליטווישע דיאַלעקטן, אַוואו ס′איז בפירוש נוטה צו i.

צען טעג אין תמוז תשפ″א \  דעם 20טן יוני 2021


משה וואָלפטאַל פרעגט וועגן אַ זעלטן וואָרט בײַ אברהם קאַרפּינאָוויטשן


משה וואָלפטאַל (היוסטאָן, טעקסאַס) פרעגט:

אין אברהם קאַרפּינאָוויטשעס דערציילונג, „חנה⸗מערקע פון די פיש“, וואָס גייט אַרײַן אין זײַן באַנד דערציילונגען ווילנע, מײַן ווילנע (פאַרלאַג י. ל. פּרץ, תל אביב 1993), טרעפט מען אויף ז. 105, אויף דער פערטער שורה דאָס וואָרט „קולעהײַ“. וואָס איז דער פּשט און פון וואַנעט קומט עס?


אָט איז דאָס וואָרט אין זײַן קאָנטעקסט אינעם באַנד פון מײַן טײַערן איידעלן חבר אברהם קאַרפּינאָוויטש ז″ל:

דאָס טשיקאַווע וואָרט טרעפט מען לפּחות נאָך צוויי מאָל אין דער זעלביקער דערציילונג. אויפן זעלבן זײַטל אַראָפּצוצו:

„שוין ווידער רובינשטיין? אָט דער קולעהײַ קריכט דיר פון קאָפּ ניט אַרויס! […]“. אַחוץ אַ דריטן פאַל אין אָט דער דערציילונג טרעפט מען דאָס וואָרט, ווײַטער בײַ קאַרפּינאָוויטשן, אין זײַן דערציילונג „די רויטע פאָן“, וואָס אין באַנד אויף ווילנער גאַסן (פאַרלאַג די גאָלדענע קייט, תל אביב 1981). אַ סברא אַז אַנדערשוואו אויך.

שטאַמען שטאַמט עס, לויט אונדזער מיינונג, פון דער אַראַמישער פראַזע „כולי האי“ וואָס טרעפט זיך אַ סך אינעם בבלי (די מסכתאות ברכות, חגיגא, עירובין, פּסחים, שבת, און נאָך) מיט פאַרשיידענע נואַנסעלעך, בתוכם: ′אויף אַזויפל′, ′אויף אַזוי ווײַט′ און פּשוט: ′דאָס אַלץ′, ′דעם אַלעמען′ וכדומה (ניט ריידנדיק וועגן באַזונדערן באַדײַט פון „כולי האַי ואולי“ אין מדרש תנחומא א.א.).

אין דער ליטווישער הברה פון גמרא לשון וועט דאָס זײַן (נוצנדיק די טראַנסקריפּציע פון אונדזער ווערטערבוך): [kúlə|háy]. מיט דער כאַראַקטעריסטישער גאונות פון יידיש, מיט אַ שפּרודלדיקער שעפערישקײַט וואָס נעמט זיך פון אַן איידעלן פּרט, האָט דער לײַכטער איבערגאַנג אויף [kùl(ə)-háy], אויפן משקל אַשטייגער פון (להבדיל) „הולטײַ“ [hùl-táy] אַ שטויס געגעבן צום געשמאַקן ווילנער אַרײַנזאָג⸗וואָרט. אַ מחיהדיקער צוגאָב איז אָט אַזאַ מיין קנייטש, אַז אַ גמרא⸗וואָרט וואָס בײַ לומדים און מלומדים ווערט מגולגל אין אַ וואָרט וואָס מאַרק⸗יידן באַנוצן זיך מיטדערמיט גאָר אויף צו באַריידן די קענער⸗שמענער…

ניט קענענדיק באַווײַזן אויף זיכער, און מיט פאַרדראָס אַלמאַי מיר האָבן בײַ אברהמען בשעתו ניט אַ פרעג געטאָן, מיינען מיר אַז ס′איז אין פּשוטן, שאַרף⸗פאָלקסטימלעכן און אַרײַנזאָגערישן ווילנער לעקסיקאָן אַרײַן מיטן באַדײַט: ′אַ גאַנצער קנאַקער וואָס קען אַלצדינג′; אַזאַ⸗אָ וואָס קען צופיל און פּטרט די צײַט מיט דער מי אַלצדינג (צי: אַלע פּיטשעווקעס) געוואָר ווערן′; אין לעצטן סך⸗הכל אפשר אַפילו אַ שאַרפע שילדערונג אין מויל פון פּשוטערן וועגן צופיל אָנגעלערנטן (וואָס איז דערצו נאָך אפשר גרויסהאַלטעריש מיטן לערנען און קענען: אַ גאַנצער קנאַקער מיטן וויסן). אפשר ווייס אַווער⸗ניט⸗איז פון אונדזערע לייענער נאָכוואָס דערוועגן?

כ″ג אלול תשפ″ב  \  דעם 19טן סעפּטעמבער 2022



יעקב באָרכאַרט פרעגט וועגן דער „נײַסטער יידישער פּאָעזיע“


אונדזער לאַנגיאָריקער חבר (פון די ברוקלינער קינדעריאָרן ממש), ר′ יעקב באָרכאַרט פון באָראָ פּאַרק ד′ברוקלין, פרעגט אין שייכות מיט אַ נײַער פּאָעזיע אָוונט אין בערלין (דעם 2טן נאָוועמבער 2022) געווידמעט „דער נײַסטער יידישער פּאָעזיע“ (אַלץ פּע⸗דע⸗עף). די פראַגע, צי איז אינטערעסאַנט די אָרגאַניזירער די לידער וואָס דערשײַנען אין חסידישע זשורנאַלן בײַ הײַנטיקן טאָג?


איך האָב מײַן יוגנט⸗חבר געענטפערט, אַז די וועלטן פון סעקולערע קרײַזן אינטעליגענטן וואָס גיבן זיך אָפּ ערנסט מיט יידיש און די זשורנאַלן וואָס גייען אַרויס בײַ אַ ציבור פון אַ סך טויזנטער מענטשן וואָס לעבן זיך אויס טאַקע אויף יידיש (אידיש) זײַנען צום באַדויערן, בעוונותינו, איינער פון אַנדערן ווײַט כרחוק מזרח ממערב. צווישן אונדזערע באַשיידענע פּרואוון נעמען שאַפן אַ בריקעלע אַצווישן זיי טרעפט מען עטלעכע אינטערנעטישע (זום) קורסן וועגן חסידישע זשורנאַלן בײַם ניו⸗יאָרקער אַרבעטער רינג.

דער עיקר ענטפער איז אָבער געווען, אַז יאָרן לאַנג קענען מיר, און מיר האַלטן בפירוש טײַער די פּרעכטיקע אַרבעט פון אונדזער בערלינער חבר אַרנט בעק וועלכער פירט אָן מיט דער בערלינער יידישער גרופּע מיט גרויס דערפאָלג און שעפערישקײַט שוין אַ סך יאָר. איך האָב אויך ריזיקירט מיט דער מיינונג, אַז איך בין זיכער אַז סײַ אַרנט און סײַ די אַלע אָנטיילנעמער אינעם בערלינער אָוונט לכבוד דער נײַסטער יידישער פּאָעזיע, וואָלטן געווען בעלנים לפּחות אַ קוק כאַפּן אויף נײַגעשריבענע יידישע לידער וואָס ווערן פאַרעפנטלעכט אין חסידישע יידישע זשורנאַלן. אין אָט דעם גײַסט ברענגען מיר דאָ טאַקע פינף דוגמאות פון די לעצטע צײַטן. בײַם קליקן אויף אַן אָפּבילד (איין מאָל און אויף נאָכמער פאַרגרעסערן אַ צווייטן מאָל) קען מען אָנקומען צו אַ גרעסערן אימאַזש וואָס מ′קען האָפנטלעך לייענען. אַזויאַרומעט קען איטלעכער זיך אָפּגעבן כאָטש אַן ערשטן דין וחשבון וועגן דעם צי די נײַגעשריבענע פאַרעפנטלעכטע לידער אין חסידישע זשורנאַלן קענען האָבן אַ דריסת הרגל אין אונדזערע השגות וועגן — דער נײַסטער יידישער פּאָעזיע (לעניוות דעתי — יאָ מיט אַן אלף). איז:

(א) „וויין, מאַמע, וויין…“ פון ה. רייזנער

אין „ליכטיגע היים“ (14טער יאָרגאַנג, נ. 173, שבט תשפ″ב \ יאַנואַר 2022, זז. 22 – 23).

(ב) „בצלא דמהימנותא“ פון ח. ניימאַן

אין „פאַמיליע“ (באַנד 47, נ. 37 [138], י″ד תשרי תשפ″ג \ דעם 9טן אָקטאָבער 2022, זז. 28 – 29)

(ג) „מעשה ברבי: דער פלאַם אויפן אייז“ פון ב.ה. קלאָר

אין „מעלות“ (באַנד 26, נ. 309, סיון תשב″ב \ יוני 2022, ז. 57)


(ד) „מיין ווערד“ פון מ. ווייס

אין „מעלות“ (באַנד 26, נ. 310, תמוז תשפ″ב \ יולי 2022, ז. 28)


(ה) „הבל הבלים, הכל הבל“

אין „ליכטיגע היים“ (יאָרגאַנג 15, נ. 131, תשרי תשפ″ג \ תשרי 2022, זז. 30-31)

ה′ חשוון תשפ″ג  \  דעם 30טן אָקטאָבער 2022

ביבליאָגראַפיע צו די שאלה⸗תשובהלעך

בירנבוים, שלמה


„דיאַלעקט און ליטעראַטור⸗לשון“ אין פילאָלאָגישע שריפטן 1 (ווילנע): 89 – 92.


די היסטאָריע פון די אַלטע U⸗קלאַנגען אין יידיש. יידישער וויסנשאַפטלעכער אינסטיטוט, פילאָלאָגישע סעקציע: ווילנע [סעפּעראַטער אָפּצוג פון ייוואָ בלעטער 6.1: 25 – 60].


Solomon A. Birnbaum, “The Age of the Yiddish Language” in Transactions of the Philological Society [for] 1939: 31 – 43.


„פון דײַטשמעריזם ביז דער הייל אין דער מדבר יהודה“ אין יידישע שפּראַך 13: 109 -– 120 .

בן⸗נון, יחיאל  ⟵ פישער, יחיאל

הערצאָג, מיכל


Marvin I. Herzog, The Yiddish Language in Northern Poland. Its Geography and History [= International Journal of American Linguistics 31.2 = Publication 37, Indiana University Research Center in Anthropology, Folklore, and Linguistics], Mouton: The Hague.

ווײַנרײַך, אוריאל


„צו דער פראַגע וועגן אַ נאָרמירטער אויסשפּראַך“ אין יידישע שפּראַך 11: 26 – 29.


Uriel Weinreich, “Sábesdiker losn in Yiddish. A Problem of Linguistic Affinity” in Word 8: 360 – 377.


(ed), The Field of Yiddish. Studies in Yiddish Language, Folklore, and Literature [= Publications of the Linguistic Circle of New York, III], Linguistic Circle of New York at Columbia University: New York.


“A Retrograde Sound Shift in the Guise of a Survival. An Aspect of Yiddish Vowel Development” in Diego Catalán (ed), Miscelánea Homenaje a. André Martinet. 2: Estructuralismo e Historia, Universidad de La Laguna, Biblioteca Filológica: La Laguna.

ווײַנרײַך, מאַקס


שטאַפּלען. פיר עטיודן צו דער יידישער שפּראַך⸗וויסנשאַפט און ליטעראַטור⸗געשיכטע, פאַרלאַג וואָסטאָק: בערלין.


„דאָס קורלענדער יידיש“ אין מאַקס ווײַנרײַך 1923: 193 – 240.


„אַ יידיש ליד וועגן שבתי צבי פון יאָר 1666“ אין [מינסקער] צײַטשריפט 1: 159 – 172.


„ווען זאָל מען ניצן ′אַלס′?“ אין יידיש פאַר אַלע (ווילנע): 1: זז. 21 – 22.


„די סיסטעם יידישע קדמון וואָקאַלן“ אין יידישע שפּראַך 20: 65 -– 71.


געשיכטע פון דער יידישער שפּראַך. באַגריפן, פאַקטן, מעטאָדן (4 בענד). יידישער וויסנשאַפטלעכער אינסטיטוט — ייוואָ: ניו⸗יאָרק.

יאָפע, יודאַ אַ


Judah A. Joffe, “Dating the Origin of Yiddish Dialects” in Field of Yiddish 1: 102 – 121.

כ″ץ, הירשע⸗דוד ← קאַץ, הירשע⸗דוד

מאַרק, יודל

1938 – 1939

„נאָרמע, יוצא-מן-הכלל, גראַמאטישע דובלעטן: נאָטיצן צו דעם ענין נאָרמירונג פון יידישן שפּראַכבאַנוץ“ אין יידיש פאַר אַלע (ווילנע\וואַרשע):  I (נומער 9, נאָוועמבער 1938): זז. 233 – 234; I (נומער 10, דעצעמבער 1938): 265 – 272; II  (נומער 3 פון צווייטן יאָרגאַנג, כוללדיקער נומער 13): זז. 80 – 86;  II (נומער 4 פון צווייטן יאָרגאַנג, כוללדיקער נומער 14, יוני-יולי 1939): 97 – 100 [ס′שטייט בײַם סוף: „סוף קומט“; אַפּנים אַז פון אויגוסט 1939 האָבן מיר ניט קיין נומער פון זשורנאַל, פון האַרט פאַרן אויסבראָך פון דער מלחמה?].


„אונדזער ליטווישער יידיש” אין ליטע. בוך איינס, רעד. מענדל סודאַרסקי, אוריה קאצענעלענבאָגן, י. קיסין, קולטור געזעלשאַפט פון ליטווישע יידן: ניו⸗יאָרק.

עמדן [עמדין], יעקב


מגלת ספר. כולל תולדות וזכרונות איש האלהים ורב פעלים, הרב הגאון הגדול מוהר″ר יעקב ישראל עמדן הנקרא יעב″ץ, אשר כתב בעצמו על ספר. יוצא לאור ראשונה מתוך כ″י הנמצא העיר אכספורד במדינת בריטניא, עם מבוא הגהות והערות וקורות הגאון יעב″ץ האחרונים. מאת דוד כהנא. האחים שולדבערג ושותפים: ווארשא. אויפן אינטערנעט.

פישער, יחיאל [בן⸗נון, יחיאל]


Jechiel Fischer, Das Jiddische und sein Verhältnis zu den deutschen Mundarten unter besonderer Berücksichtigung der ostgalizischen Mundart. Ester Teil. Erste Hälfte: Allgemeiner Teil. Inauguraldissertation zur Erlangung der Doktorwürde einer hohen philosophischen Fakultät der Ruprecht-Karls-Universität Heidelberg, Oswals Schmidt: Leipzig.

Jechiel Bin-Nun, Jiddisch und die deutsche Mundarten unter besonderer Berücksichtigung der ostgalizischen Jiddisch, Max Niemeyer: Tübingen.

צינבערג, ישראל


„דער קאַמף פאַר יידיש אין דער אַלט⸗יידישער ליטעראַטור“ אין פילאָלאָגישע שריפטן (ווילנע): באַנד 3: זז. 69 – 106.

קאַץ, הירשע⸗דוד [קאַץ, דוד]


Dovid Katz, Explorations in the History of the Semitic Component in Yiddish, 2 vols., PhD thesis, University College London: London. Online [vol. 1 also here] & vol. 2.


“Dialektologie des Jiddischen” in Dialektologie. Ein Handbuch zur deutschen und allgemeinen Dialektforschung [= Handbuch zur Sprach- und Kommunikations-wissenchaft, I], Walter de Gruyter: Berlin & New York. Online.


„דער קריזיס פון דער יידישער סטיליסטיק“ אין יידישע קולטור 54.3 (מאַי⸗יוני 1992): 38 – 44. אויפן אינטערנעט.


תקני תקנות. פראַגן פון יידישער סטיליסטיק, פאַרלאַג אָספאָרדער יידיש: אָקספאָרד.


„נײַע גלגולים פון אַלטע מחלוקתן: די ליטווישע נאָרמע און די סיכסוכים וואָס אַרום איר“ אין ייוואָ בלעטער, נײַע סעריע (ניו⸗יאָרק) 2: 205  –  257. אויפן אינטערנעט.


„וואו איז רײַסן?“ אין פאָרווערטס, 2טן פעברואַר 1996, זז. 13, 22. אויפן אינטערנעט.


„דעם ווילנער גאונס יידיש“ אין ירושלימער אַלמאַנאַך 27:  49 – 61. אויפן אינטערנעט.


Words on Fire: The Unfinished Story of Yiddish [2nd revised edition]. Basic Books: New York.


“Itske Gavenda’s Memory of the Líte – Raysn Border” in Lítvish: An Atlas of Northeastern Yiddish. Online.


„צו דער מעטאָדאָלאָגיע פון דער היסטאָרישער יידישער לינגוויסטיק“ אין DefendingHistory.com. אויפן אינטערנעט.


Yiddish and Power. Palgrave Macmillan: Basingstoke [UK].


“The Yiddish Conundrum. A Cautionary Tale for Language Revivalism” in G. Hogan-Brun and  B. O’Rourke (eds.), The Palgrave Handbook of Minority Languages and Communities, Basingstoke 2019, pp. 553-587. Online.

אין גאַנג פון דער אַרבעט (א)

Litvish. An Atlas of Northeastern Yiddish. Online.

אין גאַנג פון דער אַרבעט (ב)

.Yiddish Cultural Dictionary. An English-Yiddish Lexicon. Online

קויפמאַן, דוד


David Kaufmann (ed), Die Memoiren der Glückel von Hameln. 1649-1719. J. Kauffmann: Frankfurt am Main.

רייזען, זלמן


גראַמאַטיק פון דער יידישער שפּראַך: ערשטער טייל, פאַרלאַג ש. שרעבערק: ווילנע.


פון מענדעלסאָן ביז מענדעלע. האַנטבוך פאַר דער געשיכטע פון דער יידישער השכלה⸗ליטעראַטור מיט רעפּראָדוקציעס און בילדער, פאַרלאַג קולטור⸗לגע: וואַרשע.

1926 – 1929

לעקסיקאָן פון דער יידישער לטעראַטור, פּרעסע אטו פילאָלאָגיע, IV בענד, פאַרלאַג ב. קלעצקין: ווילנע.


[געחתמעטע צושריפט צו מאַקס ווײַנרײַכס„ווען זאָל מען ניצן ′אַלס′?“] אין יידיש פאַר אַלע (ווילנע): 1: זז. 21 – 22.

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Dovid Katz’s Latest Publications

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ONLINE (/IN PROGRESS)Yiddish Cultural Dictionary (English-Yiddish Lexicon). Lithuanian Yiddish Video Archive (LYVA).Webinars & lecturesOnline courses. Manual of Ashkenazic HebrewAshkenazic Hebrew DictionaryVirtual Yiddish Mini Museum of Old Jewish VilnaVirtual Mini Museum of Interwar Jewish Life in LithuaniaBible translations into Lithuanian YiddishHolocaust Studies papers in academic format. Mikháleshik Yizkor book.

NOTE: In citations of videos posted on youtube, the reference is also to the text in the description box (channel, most recent; and: Lithuanian Yiddish Video Archive). See also relevant Facebook posts.

19 July: Latest additions to Yiddish Cultural Dictionary [readers invited to send in words missing & corrections via: info@yiddishculturaldictionary.org].

18 July: Posting of Menke Katz’s 1976-1977 diary. On the Menke Katz Resources page.

17 July: “Exactly How Many Thousands of People Will Fit into Events at Planned ‘Museum in the Middle of the Old Vilna Jewish Cemetery’?” in Defending History.

22 June: “New plaque glorifying ‘chief spokesman for ethnic cleansing’ in Lithuanian Holocaust goes up in central Vilnius” in Defending History.

19 June: “Rabbi Elchonon Baron, asserting that Bnei Brak Rabbi was misrepresented, makes clear: ‘There will not be a museum on Shnípishok Cemetery” in Defending History.

18 June: Posting of Menke Katz’s diary (1951-1952) on the Menke Katz Resource Page. Personal comments added on Facebook.

17 June: “Building sheets down, scaffolding removed, builders’ barriers are ‘last stage’ for ‘Noreika section’ of National Library of Sciences Facade” in Defending History.

14 June: Posting in the Lithuanian Yiddish Video Archive (LYVA), and in the series The First Week of the Lithuanian Holocaust, an interview with Misha Jakobas on his mother’s memories of the Holocaust in Varzhán (Veiviržėnai).

13 June: Posting discourse be Rabbi S. J. Feffer on how a Litvak, and how a Lubavitcher, look back on their years in old age. Part of the Lithuanian Yiddish Video Archive (LYVA).

10 June: Posting in the Lithuanian Yiddish Video Archive (LYVA) of a video of Fania Yocheles Brantsovsky (Fania Brancovskaja) recounting Jewish tales of the old (interwar) Lithuanian-Polish border (2020).

9 June: Posting in the Lithuanian Yiddish Video Archive (LYVA), of videos of Sháye Epshtein (2011?), Benjamin Harshav (2011), Dov Levin (2009).

5 June: “A Letter Opener (or Spoon, or Fork) with the name ‘M. Katz’ Engraved in Yiddish” in Virtual Yiddish Mini Museum of Old Jewish Vilna (exhibit 90).

4 June: “The Vilna Tarbut (Tarbus) School’s Lapel Pin” in Virtual Yiddish Mini Museum of Old Jewish Vilna (exhibit 89).

31 May: “Kháne (Hannah) Gives Photo to her Brother, Tsvi Shuster, on 31 March 1935, on his Emigration to the Land of Israel” in in Virtual Mini-Museum of Jewish Life in the Interwar Lithuanian Republic (exhibit 30).

29 May: “Lithuania’s Minister for Jewish Affairs, Max Soloveichik, issues document confirming N. Feinberg is headed to Vilna (Wilno) on official business” in Virtual Mini-Museum of Jewish Life in the Interwar Lithuanian Republic (exhibit 29).

27 May: “Vilna Yiddish Linguist Max Weinreich inscribes — on the Train to Svintsyán (Święciany, Švenčionys), on 10 Dec. 1936 — his famous paper in French, to Tel Aviv Yiddish linguist (& Hebrew editor) Daniel Leibel”  in Virtual Yiddish Mini Museum of Old Jewish Vilna (exhibit 88).

22 May: “In honor of Fania Yocheles Brantsovsky (Brancovskaja) on her 102nd Birthday” in Defending History.

20 May: “Rabbi S. J. Feffer, Scholar (and Descendant) of Gaon of Vilna, Condemns Project to Defile Old Vilna Jewish Cemetery — Cites Ensnaring of Conference of European Rabbis (CER) & Bnei Brak’s Beth Din” in Defending History.

19 May: “Builders’ Curtain Down, Scaffolding Still Up, at Vilnius Science Library’s Facade: Will the Gov. Step in to ‘Just Say No’ to Plaque Glorifying a Collaborator in Genocide of Lithuanian Jewry during the Holocaust?” in Defending History.

17 May: Posting of extended Dec. 2008 Columbia Falls, Maine, interview with American poet, publisher and small press movement founder Harry Smith on Youtube.

15 May: Posting of extended Nov. 2008 New Haven interviews with Mikháleshik natives, siblings Gershke Perecman (Gershon Gubersky), Blumke Kusovitsky and Frumke Greenberg on Youtube.

6 May: “Yom HaShoah 2024: Please can you spend five minutes and six seconds to watch something?” in Defending History. Reprinted in Tribune Juive on 11 May.

26 April: “Rwandan Genocide Remembrance Deserves Better than Being Lassoed into Baltic Holocaust Obfuscation Politics” in Defending History.

21 April: Posting of a description of (and reflections on) rabbi of Shaki (Šakiai) Yeysef (Joseph) Goldin’s forgotten 1939 Yiddish book published in Kaunas (Kóvne), on Facebook.

19 April: Posting of Lithuanian Yiddish Passover texts, map, and links to recordings, on Facebook.

18 April: Report of intensive seminar on Yiddish and Litvak culture for Hebrew Union College students on study trip to Vilnius led by Jeremy Leigh, on Facebook.

17 April: Posting of scan-in of first Yiddish article 52 year earlier and other materials pertaining to early 1970s movement for Yiddish at the Yeshivah of Flatbush in Brooklyn, New York, on Facebook.

29 March: Posting of materials to mark the tenth yortsayt of president of the Lithuanian Jewish Community Dr. Shimon Alperovich (1928-2014), on Facebook.

28 March: Latest additions to Mikháleshik Yizkor Book.

21 March: “Updates from Lithuania’s Liveliest Cemetery” in Defending History.

8 February: Interview with Daniella Pinkstein in Tribune Juive.

17 JanuaryPosting of 1970s-1980s correspondence with Solomon A. Birnbaum (1891-1989). Also: Memoir on Facebook.

16 January: “Vilnius Winter Mystery: When the Curtain Comes Down — Noreika or No Noreika?” in Defending History.

9 January: Posting of 1970s-1980s correspondence with Florence Guggenheim-Grünberg, master of Swiss (and Southwestern) Yiddish. Also: Memoir on Facebook.

7 January: Posting of 1970s-1980s correspondence with Hartog Beem (1892-1987), master of Netherlandic Yiddish including our working papers on Netherlandic Yiddish realizations of pan-Yiddish items. Also: Memoir on Facebook.

1 January: Initiation of the webpage “Correspondence of Yiddish Linguists Hartog Beem (1892-1987), Solomon A. Birnbaum (1891-1989), Jechiel Bin-Nun (1911-1983), Florence Guggenheim-Grünberg (1898-1989)” with links to three unpublished papers and extensive correspondence with Jechiel Bin-Nun (Fischer). Also: Memoir on Facebook.

1 January: “DH’s 2024 Person of the Year: Julius Norwilla” in Defending History.


26 December: Posting of syllabus (with links to full scan-ins of all texts read) for the Autumn 2023 online course “Readings in London Yiddish Literature” with supplementary readings and links.

25 December: Latest additions to Manual of Ashkenazic Hebrew.

24 December: Latest additions to Mikháleshik Yizkor Book.

22 December: “A ‘Shameful’ Public Letter by Five Vilnius Architects: Would They Say This About a Christian Lithuanian Cemetery of 500 Years’ Vintage?” in Defending History.

10 November: “A Masterclass in Orwellian Discourse: The Vilnius Cemetery Commission Minutes of 26 October 2023” in Defending History.

3 November: “Rabbi Elchonon Baron, Citing ‘Morally Despicable Plan to turn the Shnipishok Cemetery into a Museum’ Tells the World: ‘I will Not Remain Silent’” in Defending History.

5 October: “Furore over the ‘Baron Memorandum’ to Lithuania’s Prime Minister and Speaker of Seimas” in Defending History.

27 September: “Will the Working Group Have Courage to Just Say No to New Wave of Building & Profit from the Old Vilna Jewish Cemetery?” in Defending History.

25 September: Citations in Emily Tamkin’s “Vilnius is Celebrating its 700th Anniversary” in JTA.

21 September: “Yad Vashem Director Dani Dayan, Speaking in Lithuanian Parliament, Boldly Raises the Glorification of Holocaust Collaborators Noreika, Škirpa and Krikštaponis” in Defending History.

18 September: “Painfully, Yad Vashem Heads for Vilnius, Again ‘Legitimizing’ the ‘Red-Brown Commission’, an Engine of Holocaust Revisionism” in Defending History.

23 August: Latest updates to “Saulius Beržinis’s ‘Censored Film’ on Lost Shtetl Sheduva: Lithuania’s ‘Satanic Verses’?” in Defending History.

23 August: Citations in Taylor C. Noakes, “Black Ribbon Day Is an Ahistorical, Antisemitic Fraud” in Jacobin.

1 August: Posting (on youtube) by documentary film director Loic Salfati of 2020 videographed interview on the Gaon of Vilna.

23 July: Posting of translation into Lithuanian Yiddish of the Book of Malachi (part of the project to translate the Bible into Lithuanian Yiddish; progress to date).

23 July: Posting of translation into Lithuanian Yiddish of the Book of Zechariah (part of the project to translate the Bible into Lithuanian Yiddish; progress to date).

7 July: In Memoriam: Professor Robert D. King (1936-2023).

5 July: Posting online of scan-in of compilation of materials for course at the 2005 Yiddish Teachers Program at Vilnius University.

1 June:Torah Scribe Kasríyel Léshem of Náyshtot-Távrik (Žemaičių Naumiestis) Explains Delay to M. Kroshéyev (Krevošejevas) in Radvíleshok (Radviliškis)” [=exhibit 28 of the online Mini Museum of Jewish life in Interwar Lithuania].

30 May: “J. Slavin of Abólnik (Vabalninkas) Invites Dentist Jacob Stotsky of Remigóle (Ramygala) to Relocate and Set up his Practice in Abólnik” [=exhibit 27 of the online Mini Museum of Jewish life in Interwar Lithuania].

29 May: Posting online of scan-ins of issues 1 to 30 of the mid 1990s Oxford monthly Yiddish Pen.

28 May: “Elkhónen (Elchanan) of Kóvne (Kaunas) Sends his Photo to Relatives (or Friends) in the Holy Land on 14 April 1929” [=exhibit 26 of the online Mini Museum of Jewish life in Interwar Lithuania].

25 May: “Time for France’s Embassy in Vilnius to Just Say ‘Non!’ to French Bookstore that Features Books Glorifying Lithuanian Holocaust Collaborators” in Defending History.

7 May: “A Home-Cut Ticket Issued by a Prayerhouse in Plungyán (Plungė)” [=exhibit 25 of the online Mini Museum of Jewish Life in Interwar Lithuania].

4 May:  “Lithuania’s Prime Minister Announces Members of New Commission on Fate of Hated Soviet Ruin in Heart of Vilna’s Old Jewish Cemetery” in Defending History.

27 April: “Defending History Proudly Supports Lithuanian Documentary Film Maker Saulius Beržinis” in Defending History.

24 April:The Yiddish Poem of Dvéyre Klaz of the Shtetl Tsáykeshik (Čekiškė) in the Last Days of Independent Interwar Lithuania (1940)”  [=exhibit 24 of the online Mini Museum of Jewish Life in Interwar Lithuania].

23 April: Report on visit to Vilnius of Ruth Reizin (Webb) and Rachel Reizin (granddaughter-in-law and great-granddaughter of Zalmen Reyzen) on Facebook. Reposted as “Family of Master Vilna Yiddishist Zalmen Reyzen Welcomed to Vilnius” in Defending History.

21 April: Latest additions to the  Yizkor Book for Mikháleshik (Michalishek) in Vilna Province (Michalishki, Belarus).

17 April: “A ‘Faked’ 1851/1852 Vilna Bible from the Days of the Mid 19th Century Culture Wars” [=exhibit 87 of the Virtual Yiddish Mini Museum of Old Jewish Vilna].

10 April: “Nov. 1922 postcard from the National Jewish Council in Kóvne (Kaunas) to the Jewish Council in Utyán (Utena) asking for completion of a questionnaire on the economic situation and holiday aid proved” [=exhibit 23 of the online Mini Museum of Jewish Life in Interwar Lithuania].

9 April: “An interwar bilingual Lithuanian-Yiddish commemorative envelope from Sheduva (Shádeve, Shádov) from the local Jewish branch of the Union for the Recovery of Vilnius” [=exhibit 22 of the online Mini Museum of Jewish Life in Interwar Lithuania].

9 April: “Antisemitic Commemorative Envelope, Linked to 700th Vilnius Anniversary, On Sale on Vilnius’s Main Souvenir Thoroughfare” in Defending History.

6 April: “A Great City’s 700th Birthday: For the Sake of Vilnius, Will They Now Take Down Public-Space Honors for Local Holocaust Collaborators?” in Defending History.

5 April: “Blaming Inna Hecker Grade for Bashevis Singer’s Greater Success in English Translation” (text of unpublished letter sent to the New York Times on 6 March) in Defending History.

5 April: Obituary for Phyllis Kushner Katz (1926-2023) on Facebook.

4 April: Obituary for Troim Katz Handler (1927-2023) on Facebook.

17 March: Editing of Noah Barrera’s original Yiddish short story, Hemingway in Brooklyn (at author’s request).

16 March: “Latvia is a Democracy: So Why Fear Critique of Annual Riga Worship of Hitler’s Waffen SS?” in Defending History.

14 March: “Zalmen Reyzen’s Letter of Aug. 1933 from Vilna to the Shaarei Zion Library in Tel Aviv”  [= exhibit no. 86 of the online Yiddish Mini Museum of Old Jewish Villna].

12 March: Revision of post “Dictionaries for advanced students of Yiddish literature and press“.

16 February: “Review of Michael Kretzmer’s Film J’Accuse!” in Defending History [+ addendum of 20 Feb.].

16 February: Comments on Lithuania’s Independence Day and participation in ensuing discussion thread on Facebook.

29 January: Obituary for Roza Bieliauskiene (1946-2023) on Facebook. Revised version posted in Defending History. Addendum of Yiddish text for the 1 February funeral in Vilnius.

29 January: Posting of syllabus for completed Jan. 2023 Yivo-Bard course on History of the Yiddish Language.

26 January: Posting of initial reading list on the Western Ashkenazic Holekraysh (Hollekreisch) for History of the Yiddish Language students (Yivo-Bard).

1 January:Defending History’s 2023 Person of the Year: Evaldas Balčiūnas” in Defending History.


Mikháleshik Yizkor Book   מיכאַלישקער יזכור⸗בוך
Sept. 2022 Launch of an online, multimedia, multilingual 21st century yizkor book (yízker-bukh, book commemorating the destroyed Jewish civilization of an East European shtetl) for Mikháleshik (Michaleshik, Michalishek, Michailishok; today: Michalishki, Belarus)

30 December: Latest 2022 additions to Yiddish Cultural Dictionary.

27 December: Latest 2022 updates to Defending History.

10 November: Compiler of “Papers by Professor Michael Shafir (1944-2022)” in Defending History.

30 October: “Five Recently Published Poems in Hasidic Yiddish Magazines” in Yiddish Responsa.

26 October: Latest additions to online Mikháleshik Yizkor Book.

3 October: “Defending the (Real) History of Yiddish at Oxford” in Defending History.

26 September: Latest additions to DefendingHistory.com (which celebrated its 13th birthday this month).

13 September: Founding of the online Mikháleshik Yizkor Book. First draft with preface.

12 September: New page: The American Hebrew Day School Boycott of Yiddish: ‘Aleichem Sholem’ and Other Documents from the 1972-1974 Yeshivah of Flatbush Dispute (including uploaded scan-ins of all issues of Aleichem Sholem, coverage in the New York Post and Forverts, etc.).

9 September: “Will ‘Jewish’, ‘Litvak’ & ‘Yiddish’ Parts of ‘Kaunas 2022 Capital of European Culture’ Festivities Include Calls for Removal of Kaunas’s Hurtful Public Shrines to Holocaust Collaborators?” in Defending History.

7 September: Memoir (text & photos): “Eli S. Rosenzweig: Dear Friend and Unique Satirist” on Facebook.

6 September: Memoir (text & photos): “My friendship with London Yiddish authors I.A. Lisky & N.M. Seedo (Sonia Chusid)” on Facebook.

5 September: Updates to earlier memoir (text & photos): “A.N. Stencl (Avróm-Nókhem Shtentsl) & Our Friendship” on Facebook.

12 August: [update to] Compilation of articles, documentaries, videos, etc in honor of Fania Yocheles Brantsovsky’s 100th birthday in Defending History.

24 July: Updates to “Course Packet for Readings in New York’s Leftist Yiddish Daily, the Fráyhayt (1920s-1930s)”.

6 July: Posting of 1994 Oxford interview with Vilna-raised Yoni(a) Fain. In the Lithuanian Yiddish Video Archive (LYVA).

6 July: Posting of audiotape of 1975 visit by Vilna-born Dovid Botvinik (David Botwinik) and his family with Menke and Rivke Katz in Spring Glen, N.Y. In the Lithuanian Yiddish Video Archive (LYVA).

5 July: “Remembering my late Uncle Meishke (Edward M. Katz)” on Facebook.

5 July: Posting of 1978/1979 audiotape of London interview with Kóvne-born Khéme Pon(y)emúnsky (Nehemiah Ponting). In the the Lithuanian Yiddish Video Archive (LYVA).

4 July: Posting of 1994 Llandudno interview with Rabbi Jerachmiel Cofnas (Yerachmiel Tsofnas, 1912-2010) of Déksne/Shiló in the Lithuanian Yiddish Video Archive (LYVA).

29 June: Posting of late 1970s interview with Yiddish poet A. N. Stencl of Tsheládzh (Czeladź, 1897-1983). In the London Whitechapel Video Archive.

29 June: Posting of 2008 West Palm Beach interviews with Yoysef-Ziskind (Yosele) Sandále (Josef Sandala, 1920-2012) of Góveròve (Goworowo), Poland, where he lived before the war. In the Southern Yiddish Dialect Video Archive (SYDVA).

27 June: Posting of 1968 Boro Park interview with Harry (Hershl) Feldman (±1886 — 1974) of Káminetz Podólsk (Kamianets-Podilskyi). In the Yiddish in Ukraine Video Archive (YUVA).

27 June: Posting of 1979 London Whitechapel interview with A. N. Stencl (1897-1983) of Tshéladzh (Czeladź). In the London Whitechapel Video Archive.

20 June: Posting of  June 2022 Vilnius interview with Yéte Gurvitsh (Eta Gurvičiūtė, born Kóvne 1920). In the Lithuanian Yiddish Video Archive (LYVA).

19 June: Posting of June 2022 Vilnius interview with Misha Jakobas (born 1949) of Telz (Telšiai). In the Lithuanian Yiddish Video Archive (LYVA).

12 June“‘Morbid Memorandum’ (of AJC+LJC+GWF+Vilnius Mayor) Says Jews in Lithuania ‘Dying Out Altogether’ — While Allocating Millions for New ‘Community Center’ Building on Sacred ‘Great Synagogue Square’” in Defending History.

7 June: Latest additions to Mini Dictionary of Ashkenazic Hebrew.

3 June: Latest additions to Mini Museum of Interwar Jewish Lithuania.

3 June: Latest additions to Virtual Yiddish Mini Museum of Old Jewish Vilna [in Yiddish].

3 June: Crucifix with (Unverified) Wartime Hidden Insert of Page of Hebrew Psalms” [in Yiddish]. in Virtual Mini Museum of Old Jewish Vilna [MOJV].

30 May: “Max Weinreich’s 1931 Review of Vorobeichic’s Photo Book on Jewish Vilna” in Virtual Mini Museum of Old Jewish Vilna [in Yiddish].

30 May: Latest additions to Lithuanian Yiddish Video Archive. On YT.

29 May: “1921 Pin Celebrating in Yiddish Fifth Anniversary of the Vilna Jewish Craftmens Association” in Virtual Mini Museum of Old Jewish Vilna [in Yiddish].

29 May: “Uh-Oh, Here We Go Again: Secret Memorandum on Future of Vilna Great Synagogue Courtyard” in Defending History.

27 May: “Happy 60th Birthday to our Staff Writer Evaldas Balčiūnas, Unique Lithuanian Ethicist” in Defending History. Also: personal tribute on FB.

23 May: Another ‘Fake Litvak Congress’? Litvaks of Lithuania are Excluded on Orders of Election-coup ‘Pylimo 4 Bosses’; Photo-op Foreigners In Town for Gov. Hosted Event” in Defending History.

22 May: Fania Yocheles Brantsovsky, State-Defamed Jewish World War II Partisan Hero, Turns 100” in Defending History.

18 May: Updates on Kaunas’s ‘Capital of European Culture 2022’ Year Without (So Far) Removing a Single Shrine to Local Holocaust Collaborators” in Defending History.

13 May: “1931 Bilingual Ad for Sh. Abelsky’s ‘First in Lithuania: Rope Factory & Retail’” in Virtual Mini Museum of Interwar Lithuania.

5 May: [co-editor of Yiddish text (only) in], Meyshe Kulbak: Ale Lider un Poemen (appeared in Prague in separate Yiddish and bilingual Yiddish-Belarusian editions), published by Vesna Publishers. On FB.

5 May: “Memories of Professor Gershon Winer (1922-2003)” on FB.

26 April: Lastest Additions to Yiddish in Ukraine Video Archive (YUVA): Dedicated to the People of Ukraine in 2022. On YT.

26 AprilPosting of video interview with Roza Bieliauskiene of Vilnius in the Lithuanian Yiddish Video Archive (LYVA).

17 April:27 Months Later: Lithuania’s Defense Ministry Still Flaunts Website Homage to Hitlerist Theoretician of Ethnic Cleansing of Jews” in Defending History.

20 March: “Ottawa Citizen & N.Y. Times Break Media Silence on Self-Damage of Eastern NATO/EU Democracies by Public-Space Adoration of Holocaust Collaborators” in Defending History.

6 February: Exotic Antisemitism? Declaring a Soviet Ruin to be a National Treasure — to Keep an Old City-Center Jewish Cemetery Verily Underground?” in Defending History.

1 February:A Jewish Museum Without a Single Jewish Staff Member? (in a country with some 3,000 Jewish citizens)” in Defending History.

20 January: Syllabus for Yivo-Bard winter session course on History of  the Yiddish Language.

10 January: Editor’s Comments on Defending History Persons of the Year 2022” in Defending History.

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10 November: Review of J. Shandler’s Yiddish: Biography of a Language in Journal of Multilingual and Multicultural DevelopmentProof available here.

24 September: “Open Letter to (1) Archimenai; (2) Institute of Design & Restoration; (3) Sigitas Kuncevičius; (4) Vilnius Architecture Studio” in Defending History.

15 September: Latest additions to The Ashkenazic Manual and the Ashkenazic Mini-Dictionary.

9 September: “Honoring Holocaust Victims One Day, and Two Days Later”Perpetrators” in Defending History.

5 September: “In Lithuania, President’s Speech, New Monument, and Major Conference Glorify Participant in June 1941 Kaunas Atrocities Against Jewish Citizens” in Defending History.

1 September: “Will Vytautas Magnus University in Kaunas Remove Nazi-Collaborator Shrines as it Honors the Great Leonidas Donskis?” in Defending History.

27 June:  “Vilnius Court’s May 10th Verdict Illustrates ‘Insidious and Tragic’ Destruction of East European Cemeteries via London’s CPJCE” in DefendingHistory.

16 April:No Sir, This is No Photoshop” in Defending History.

14 April: “Far-Right Historian Who Poses Proudly with Posters of Holocaust Collaborators Nominated to Head Lithuania’s ‘Genocide Center’” in Defending History.

22 February: “President of Germany Honors Major East European ‘History Dissident’ Rachel Kostanian, Longtime Head of Vilnius’s Only Holocaust Museum” in Defending History.

14 February: Text of online speech at the Leyvik House book launch evening for Rivke Basman’s In blíung fun ash.

12 February: Zalmen Reyzen’s Perception of the Common Ground on Issues of Standard Yiddish and Extreme Purism” [in Yiddish: Zalmen Reyzens daas haklal vos shaeykh dem standardn yidish un dem ekstremen purizm] in D. Katz, Responsa in Yiddish Linguistics, no. 4 (Feb. 2021).

3 February: “Suddenly, Strong Statements from the Long-Silent: Holocaust Posturing or Sincere Outrage?” in Defending History.

31 January: (ed.) and compiler), “Tributes to Rachael Kostanian on her 91st Birthday” in Defending History.

1 January: “2021 is DH’s Year to Honor ‘First Week Victims and Savers’ — on 80th Anniversary of 1941” in Defending History.

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BookEinstein from Svir and Other Short Stories [collection of twelve Yiddish short stories, eight set in pre World War I Lithuania; four set in London and New York], H. Leyvik Publishing House: Tel Aviv [project officially dated 2019, appeared in early Jan. 2020]. Book available at publisher’s website (or via: leyvikmail@gmail.com).

Booklet: The Book of Esther. Translated into Lithuanian Yiddish. In Memory of Rivke Katz (1921-2019). Vilnius: 36 pp.

Paper: “Reflections on Czernowitz at 110”  in Wolf Moskovich (ed),  Jews and Slavs, vol. 26 [= Yiddish: A Jewish National Language at 110. Proceedings of the Czernowitz Yiddish Language International Conference], Dukh i Litera: Kyiv, pp. 11-50 [comprising also, on pp. 11-20, the original keynote lecture at the conference in Yiddish].

13 December: Latest additions to A Yiddish Cultural Dictionary: English-Yiddish Lexicon for the 21st Century.

4 September: “Remembering London’s Beloved Rabbi Avrohom Pinter (1949-2020)” in Defending History.

3 September: Posting of draft translation of the biblical Book of Habakkuk into Lithuanian Yiddish (books in the series to date).

30 August: Posting of draft translation of the biblical Book of Nahum into Lithuanian Yiddish (books in the series to date).

2 August: “Motke Chabad Says: Rabbi Forbids His Own Community’s Bagels in Vilnius — ‘Not Kosher’” in Defending History [Russian translation by Julia Rets].

29 June: “Will Lithuania’s Parliament Really Name 2021 for Alleged Participant in LAF’s Kaunas Atrocities of June 1941?” in Defending History.

22 April: Translation of the Book of Micah (from Biblical Hebrew) into Lithuanian Yiddish.

25 March: Translation of the Book of Obadiah (from Biblical Hebrew) into Lithuanian Yiddish.

24 March: Translation of the Book of Amos (from Biblical Hebrew) into Lithuanian Yiddish.

10 February 2020: Translation of the Book of Joel (from Biblical Hebrew) into Lithuanian Yiddish.

2 February: PDF of 2017 Vilnius publication of The Book of Ruth in Lithuanian Yiddish posted online.

30 January: “Kovno Leather Merchant D.L. Lipetz Writes to Son-in-Law Dr. Joseph Britanishsky in London (Leon Brittan’s Father) in 1930” in Mini-Museum of Jewish Life in Interwar Lithuania (exhibit 18).

27 January: “Yiddish and Hebrew Divorce Authorization Form from Early Years of Independent Lithuania” in Mini-Museum of Jewish Life in Interwar Lithuania (exhibit 17).

21 January 2020: “Chelm or New York? Yivo Fires its Librarians, While Investing “Fortune” in PR for Lithuanian Government’s Jewish Politics” in Defending History.

21 January: “Vilna Jewish Committee for Refugees Certifies Status of Matis Kolinsky (July 1940)” in Mini-Museum of Jewish Life in Interwar Lithuania (exhibit 16).


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“The Yiddish Conundrum. A Cautionary Tale for Language Revivalism” in G. Hogan-Brun and  B. O’Rourke (eds.), The Palgrave Handbook of Minority Languages and Communities, Basingstoke 2019, pp. 553-587.

“On Methodology in Yiddish Historical Linguistics” (in Yiddish) in Danielle Buschinger & Roy Rosenstein (eds), Jewish Identity and Comparative Studies [Festschrift for Astrid Starck-Adler], Centre d’Études Médiévales de Picardie: Amiens 2019, pp. 1-12.

“On the (Ab)use of Law to Remake the Historical Narrative of World War II” in Mémoires en Jeu / Memories at Stake, no. 9 (Paris), pp. 88 -93. PDF of proof only.

LRT TV interview; English original (part).

22 November: “But What is a Litvak Symbol?” in Defending History. 

15 November: “When is a Hollowed-Out Jewish Menorah a Flowerpot for a Symbol Nowadays Brandished by Far-Right Antisemites?” in Defending History.

13 AugustFirst Issue of Shleyme Bostomski & M. Chaimson’s new magazine for Yiddish teachers around the world, the “Shúl-Fraynd” (Vilna, Jan. 1936) in Virtual Museum of Old Jewish Vilna (no. 73).

12 August: Cited in Jillian Deutsch, “Plaque by Plaque, Lithuania Confronts its Wartime Past” in Politico

4 August“Oct. 1934 Vilna Yiddish Young People’s Magazine Brings News of Workmen’s Circle’s Yiddish School in Atlanta, Georgia” (in Yiddish) in Virtual Museum of Old Jewish Vilna (no. 72).

4 August: “Who’s Afraid of DefendingHistory.com?” on Defending History Facebook page.

1 August: “Bravo to Hizzoner Vilnius Mayor Remigijus Šimašius!” in Defending History. 

29 July: Cited in JTA report, “In Eastern Europe, Holocaust Museums are Missing from Key Historical Sites”. Report by Cnaan Liphshiz also in Sun Sentinel.

22 June: “Monument to Hitler Collaborator in Chicago: A Story that Won’t Go Away” in Defending History.

2 June: “Turmoil Growing over Monument in Chicago that Glorifies a Hitler Collaborator” in Defending History.

24 May: “Honest Mistake at Irish Embassy” in Defending History.

13 May: Interview with Alexandra Kudukis in The Lithuania Tribune.

15 April: “A Tale of Two Cities? New Britain (Connecticut) and Chicago (Illinois)” in Defending History.

1 April: “On Methodology in Yiddish Historical Linguistics” (in Yiddish) in Danielle Buschinger & Roy Rosenstein (eds), Jewish Identity and Comparative Studies [Festschrift for Astrid Starck-Adler], Centre d’Études Médiévales de Picardie: Amiens 2019, pp. 1-12.

1 April: TV interview on issues of Holocaust remembrance and democracy in Eastern Europe (Jazz News TV).

3 March: “1931 Letter from Meyshe in Klaipeda (Memel) to His Brother Motl in Kharkov (Kharkiv)” (in Yiddish) in Virtual Museum of Interwar Jewish Lithuania (no. 15).

25 February: “Kaunas Society of Jesus Buys Cloth for Aprons, Oilcloth & Canvas from M. Tabatchnik’s Dry Goods Store” (in Yiddish) in Virtual Museum of Interwar Jewish Lithuania (no. 14).

24 February: “Dovid Lipman’s Corner Shop is for Electrics, but Also Offers a Cosmetics Section (in Yiddish) in Virtual Museum of Interwar Jewish Lithuania (no. 13).

19 February: “Ms. S. Vulfartaite’s and Her Kaunas Shop of Exotic Butters Made  in Riga” (in Yiddish) in Virtual Museum of Interwar Jewish Lithuania (no. 12).

10 February“The New Yiddish Book about Vilna and its Author Aaron Garon” in Defending History.

24 January: Cited in JTA report, “Lithuanian Church Removes Jewish Headstones Used as Stairs”.

23 January:  “Once Again, Sophomoric and Substandard Journalism at the Yiddish Forward” in Defending History.

11 January“1930s Vilna Family Sends Photo to Relatives in Israel with Message: ‘Don’t forget us!’ ” (in Yiddish) in Virtual Museum of Old Jewish Vilna (no. 71).

10 January: “A Significant Trial of Holocaust History” in Defending History  (quotation).

1 January: “The Yiddish Conundrum. A Cautionary Tale for Language Revivalism” in G. Hogan-Brun and  B. O’Rourke (eds.), The Palgrave Handbook of Minority Languages and Communities, Basingstoke 2019, pp. 553-587.

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Jump to: 2018 Projects in Progress; 2018 By Date.  


Papers, essays, Bible translations and a dictionary:

“The Czernowitz Conference at 110” [in Yiddish]. Keynote address at the International Conference on the 110th Anniversary of the 1908 Yiddish Language Conference at Czernowitz on 6 August 2018; forthcoming in conference volume edited by Wolf Moskovich. Draft only (without footnote apparatus).

A Forgotten Poem by Hirsh Glik on the Beauty of Nighttime Winter Vilna and its Viliya River” [in Yiddish] in Virtual Yiddish Mini Museum of Old Jewish Vilna (exhibit 67).

“The Baltic Movement to Obfuscate the Holocaust” in Alex J. Kay and David Stahel (eds), Mass Violence in Nazi-Occupied Europe: New Debates and Perspectives, Indiana University Press: Bloomington 2018, pp. 235-261.

“Primary Holocaust Inversion and Eastern European Antisemitism” in Charles Asher Small (ed), The ISGAP Papers: Antisemitism in Comparative Perspective (vol. 3), Institute for the Study of Global Antisemitism and Policy, 2018, pp. 207-218.

“Lithuania’s Museum of Holocaust Denial. A state-sponsored institution in Vilnius rewrites history to the delight of Europe’s new ultranationalists” in Tablet. In Russian translation.

2018 by date:

26 December. “The 1924 Mizrahi (Religious Zionist) Youth Movement Membership Card of Reuven Finger”  (in Yiddish) in Virtual Museum of Old Jewish Vilna (no. 70).

22 December. “A Vilna Yiddish Theatre Studio Invites Zalmen Reyzen to Scenes from Skakespeare, Schiller, Gorki, Gogol and Büchner” (in Yiddish) in Virtual Museum of Old Jewish Vilna (no. 69).

16 December. “Another One-Sided Yivo Program on the Lithuanian Holocaust — in New York?” in Defending History.

5 December: “Is Yiddish ‘Lingua non grata’ at National Library’s Exhibition on Prewar Lithuanian Jewish Life?” in Defending History.

29 November: Interviewed on the Real News Network regarding events in Poland.

21 November: “US Taxpayer-Funded Commission Taken to Court in DC for Helping Vilnius Builders Desecrate City’s Old Jewish Cemetery” in  Defending History.

19 November“A Hebrew Betar Medal from Interwar Vilna” in Virtual Yiddish Museum of Old Jewish Vilna, (no. 68).

19 November: “Is Yad Vashem Legitimizing Vilnius ‘Genocide Center’?” in Defending History.

21 OctoberPosting of draft translation of Hosea from Biblical Hebrew into Lithuanian Yiddish (books translated to date).

10 October: Jacob Piliansky, 72, Soft-Spoken Spokesperson for Historic Jewish Truth, Dies in Vilnius” in Defending History.

1 October: “The Question Fareed Zakaria Left Out of Interview with Ukraine’s President” in Defending History.

23 September: Sept. 23rd Ponár Memorial and Pope Francis’s Visit to Vilna Ghetto Memorial” in Defending History.

21 September: Cited in JTA report “Pope Francis Urged to Speak Out Against Construction Atop a Vilnius Jewish Cemetery”; also in Times of Israel on 22 Sept.

16 September: “Ten Israeli Knesset Members Call on Lithuania’s President to Move Convention Center Project Away from Old Vilna Jewish Cemetery” in Defending History.

10 September: Cited in Andrew Higgins, “Nazi Collaborator or National Hero? A Test for Lithuania” in The New York Times.

6 September: Cited in Saul Chapnick, “The Midnight Plane to Czernowitz: The 2018 International Yiddish Conference” in The Times of Israel.

23 August: “WJC Tweet Causes Pain to Holocaust Survivors and their Families” in Defending History.

23 August: Cited in Ben Cohen, “Holocaust Experts Urge Israeli PM Netanyahu to Confront ‘Rewriting of Shoah History’ During Visit to Baltics” in Algemeiner.com.

6 August“The Czernowitz Conference at 110” [in Yiddish]. Keynote address at the International Conference on the 110th Anniversary of the 1908 Yiddish Language Conference at Czernowitz on 6 August 2018; forthcoming in conference volume edited by Wolf Moskovich. Draft only (without footnote apparatus).

24 July: Cited in Jada Yuan, “Places 24 and 25 of 52: In Tallinn and Vilnius, the Complexities of Independence” in The New York Times.

2 July: Cited in  Margherita Nasi, “La Lituanie troublée par la mémoire de la Shoah” in Le Monde. As PDF.

5 June: “Freud and 21st Century Yiddish” [in Yiddish]. Abstract for commissioned paper at the 2020 conference of Freud and Yiddish at the Centre Culturel International de Cerisy).

4 June: Cited in Joanna Plucinska’s “Ghosts of Lithuania’s Past Brought Back by a Child’s Toy” in Politico.eu.

30 May: Cited in “Lithuanian Jews Protest in Vilnius Against Leadership of the Lithuanian Jewish Community, Demand Free and Fair Elections” in The Weekly of Vilnius, pp. 34-39.

29 May: Cited in JTA’s “Lithuanian Jews Rally to Demand Fair Internal Elections” in JTA.

28 May: “100 Jews from Across Lithuania Peacefully Protest Undemocratic Hijack of Official Jewish Community” in Defending History.

22 May: “An Opportunity for Leaders of Israel’s ‘March of the Living’ in Vilnius” in Defending History.

18 May: Cited in Shalom Goldman’s “The Catholic Priest who Became an Orthodox Jew” in Tablet.

25 April: “Poland’s New Holocaust Law is Bad, but Not the Worst” in Jewish Currents.

25 April: Cited in JTA report, “Congress Members Call our Ukraine Government for Glorifying Nazis”.

24 April: Compilation of 15 Yiddish poems by Menke Katz (1906-1991) posted on the occasion of the poet’s 27th yórtsayt, on DovidKatz.net.

12 April: “Lithuania’s Museum of Holocaust Denial. A state-sponsored institution in Vilnius rewrites history to the delight of Europe’s new ultranationalists” in Tablet.

9 April: “Brussels (& Some Fine London Architects) Duped into ‘Double Genocide’ Program of ‘Equalizing’ Nazi and Soviet Crimes?” in Defending History. 

6 April: “New Britain, Connecticut Says No to Monument Honoring Alleged Holocaust Collaborator” in Defending History. 

2 April: Statement on New Britain, Connecticut issues included in DH report, “Defending History in New Britain, Connecticut Against Plans to Glorify Alleged Holocaust Collaborator on Public Grounds” in Defending History.

30 March: Cited in Rod Nordland’s “Where the Genocide Museum is (Mostly) Mum on the Fate of Jews” in The New York Times. Hebrew translation of the article published by Haaretz, 2 April 2018.

30 March: Compilation and posting of old Vilna area Yiddish versions of three principal Passover songs in “Litvak Culture” section of Defending History.

30  March: Interviewed by Adam Asher: “Vilna Without Vilna” in the Oxford Review of Books.

20 March: Interviewed by Paul Simon:  “Ein systematischer Versuch, die Geschichte umzuschreiben” in Jungle World.

16 March: “Could Lithuania’s Single Freedom of Speech Lapse be on Questions of History?” in Defending History.

13 March: Co-author of Defending History’s eyewitness report on the March 11th neo-Nazi march in central Vilnius [cited in Weekly of Vilnius, 12-18 March 2018, pp. 15-16].

6 March: “Chief Rabbi of Western Wall and and Holy Sites in Israel Calls on Lithuania’s President to Cancel Convention Center Project at Old Vilna Jewish Cemetery” in Defending History.

19 February: “A Forgotten Poem by Hirsh Glik on the Beauty of Nighttime Winter Vilna and its Viliya River” [in Yiddish] in Virtual Yiddish Mini Museum of Old Jewish Vilna (exhibit 67).

18 February “Nationalist” March in Central Vilnius on Lithuania’s 100th Birthday Ends Up in Usual Neo-Nazi Spirit” in Defending History.

17 February“Red-Brown Commission’ Boasts of Conference Honoring Alleged 1941 Collaborator” in Defending History.

16 February: “Defending History Celebrates Lithuania’s 100th Anniversary” in Defending History.

9 February: “Israel Chonicle [Updated]” in Defending History.

1 February: “Registry of Opposition to “The National Convention Center” Atop the Old Vilna Jewish Cemetery at Piramónt (Šnipiškės) [updated]” in Defending History.

1 February: “Agnieszka Jablonska’s August 2017 Report on Wrocław Jewish Cemetery Now in Public Domain” in Defending History.

21 JanuaryYiddish Cultural Dictionary for the 21st Century project goes online.

15 January: “Chief Rabbi of Israel Pleads with Lithuania’s President to Abandon Plans for Convention Center on the Old Vilna Jewish Cemetery” in Defending History.

14 January: “Great Expectations for Kaunas, as City is Named 2022 ‘Capital of European Culture’” in Defending History.

14 January: “Does the City of New Britain, Connecticut Really Want to Honor Someone who Led a Hitlerist Militia in the Early Days of the Lithuanian Holocaust?” in Defending History.

1 January: “Malvina Šokelytė Valeikienė is Defending History’s 2018 Person of the Year” in Defending History.

2018 Projects in Progress:

Yiddish Cultural Dictionary for the 21st Century [online].

Dovid and Goliath: Writings on East European Holocaust Revisionism and Antisemitism, 2007-2018 [in preparation in partnership with publisher].

Yiddish Virtual Mini-Museum of Old Jewish Vilna [in Yiddish, index in English] (work in progress). https://defendinghistory.com/keepsakes-of-old-jewish-vilna-index

Yiddish Virtual Mini-Museum of Jewish Life in Interwar Lithuania [in Yiddish, index in English] (work in progress). https://defendinghistory.com/index-to-virtual-mini-museum-of-jewish-life-in-the-interwar-lithuanian-republic/91524

Responsa on Yiddish Linguistics [in Yiddish] (work in progress). https://defendinghistory.com/responsa-in-yiddish-linguistics-by-dovid-katz

Bible translations into Lithuanian Yiddish (work in progress): RuthI KingsII Kings,  JonahSong of SongsEcclesiastes, Lamentations, Daniel, Esther

Youtube postings of a quarter century of interviews with the last in-situ Litvaks (work in progress).  https://www.youtube.com/playlist=PL89369D626BD42D2C&feature=plcp

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“The Extraordinary Recent History of Holocaust Studies in Lithuania” in Dapim: Studies on the Holocaust, vol. 31.3 “Scholars’ Forum: Holocaust Historiography in Eastern Europe (Part II)” (December 2017), pp. 285-295.   http://www.tandfonline.com/doi/abs/10.1080/23256249.2017.1395530?journalCode=rdap20;  PDF of proof at: https://defendinghistory.com/wp-content/uploads/2017/12/Dovid-Katz-on-Holocaust-Studies-in-Lithuania-PROOF-ONLY-Dec.-2017.pdf

“Inseparable Threesome: Leyzer Ran, Vilna, and Yiddish” in Charles Berlin (ed.), Catalog of the Leyzer Ran Collection in the Harvard College Library, Harvard Library: Cambridge, Massachusetts 2017, pp. 13-16.

The Book of Ruth. Translated from the Biblical Hebrew into Lithuanian Yiddish, Ele-Leyzer (Elchik) Chait: Vilnius 2017, 20 pp. Prelim pages available at: https://defendinghistory.com/wp-content/uploads/2017/04/Ruth-first-3-prelims.pdf  

“Free Trade Awry? The Westward Export of Double Genocide” in Danielle Buschinger and Roy Rosenstein (eds), Mélanges offerts à Jeff Richards par ses amis à l’occasion de son 65e anniversaire. Centre d’Etudes Médiévales de la Picardie, Amiens 2017. Proof at: https://defendinghistory.com/wp-content/uploads/2017/04/Dovid-Katzs-paper-in-Earl-Jeffrey-Richards-festschrift-2017.pdf

“West is West, East is East: The Specific East European Incarnation of Antisemitism” in Krytyka Literacka, 2017 (2), pp. 15-17.

Dated Entries in Reverse Chronological Order:

Latest entry in Virtual Yiddish Mini-Museum of Jewish Culture in the Interwar Lithuanian Republic, 25 December 2017.  Index (in English):  https://defendinghistory.com/index-to-virtual-mini-museum-of-jewish-life-in-the-interwar-lithuanian-republic/91524

“Take Note, Historians of Israeli Diplomacy: Betraying the Truth about the Holocaust is Not a Good Idea” in Defending History, 24 December 2017. https://defendinghistory.com/take-note-historians-of-israeli-diplomacy-betraying-the-truth-about-the-holocaust-is-not-a-good-idea/92431

“Vilnius District Court Nullifies LJC Head’s Spring 2017 Alleged ‘Kangaroo-Election Power Grab’” in Defending History, 21 December 2017. https://defendinghistory.com/vilnius-district-court-nullifies-heads-may-2017-alleged-steal-the-election-power-grab/92375

“Two Perspicacious Comments in Today’s Issue of Weekly of Vilnius” in Defending History, 17 December 2017. https://defendinghistory.com/two-perspicacious-comments-in-todays-issue-of-the-weekly-of-vilnius/92200

“Did Israel Cross a Holocaust Red Line Today by Honoring Leader of a Pro-Nazi 1941 Militia?” in Defending History, 15 December 2017.  https://defendinghistory.com/did-israel-cross-a-holocaust-red-line-today-by-honoring-leader-of-a-pro-nazi-1941-militia/92121

“28 Oct. 1919 Issue of Kóvne’s Zionist Yiddish Paper Yídishe shtíme”  [in Yiddish] in Mini-Museum of Jewish Culture in the Interwar Lithuanian Republic (9), 4 December 2017.  

“Lithuania’s Jewish Affairs Minister Max Soloveitchik Writes to his German Counterpart in 1922” [in Yiddish] in Mini-Museum of Jewish Culture in the Interwar Lithuanian Republic (3), 28 November 2017.  https://defendinghistory.com/lithuanias-jewish-affairs-minister-max-soloweitschik-writes-to-his-german-counterpart-in-1922

“Lithuanian Language Textbook for Hebrew Schools with Ékhod mi yoydéya in Lithuanian (Mariampolė 1928)” [in Yiddish] in Mini-Museum of Jewish Culture in the Interwar Lithuanian Republic (1), 26 November 2017. https://defendinghistory.com/childrens-lithuanian-language-textbook-for-hebrew-schools-mariampole-1928

“The ‘Double Genocide’ Theory: The New and Official Form of Holocaust Denial” in Jewish Currents, 22 November 2017. http://jewishcurrents.org/the-double-genocide-theory/ 

“Real or Rigged ‘International Conference on Fascism and Antisemitism’ in Vilnius on 9 November?” in Defending History, 7 November 2017.  https://defendinghistory.com/real-or-a-rigged-international-conference-on-fascism-and-antisemitism-in-vilnius-on-9-november/91109

“Harvard Publishes Catalog of the Leyzer Ran Collection in Harvard College Library” in Defending History, 6 November 2017. https://defendinghistory.com/harvard-publishes-catalog-of-the-leyzer-ran-collection-in-harvard-college-library/91082

“Joseph Melamed, Major Leader of International Litvak Community, Dies in Tel Aviv at 93” in Defending History, 29 October 2017. https://defendinghistory.com/joseph-melamed-major-leader-of-international-litvak-community-dies-in-tel-aviv-at-93/90846

“New Prague — Brussels Battle over European History?” in Defending History, 24 October 2017. https://defendinghistory.com/new-prague-brussels-battle-over-european-history/90736

“Anti-Nazi Partisan Hero Chasia Langbord Shpanerflig, 96, Dies in Vilnius” in Defending History, 21 October 2017. https://defendinghistory.com/anti-nazi-partisan-hero-chasia-langbord-shapenerflig-97-dies-in-vilnius/90566

“Text of Irish Ambassador Dónal Denham’s 2008 Speech at Brantsovsky Reception is Released for the Record” in Defending History, 20 October 2017. https://defendinghistory.com/text-of-irish-ambassador-donal-denhams-2008-speech-at-brantsovsky-reception-is-released-for-the-record/90606

“Lithuania’s Prime Minister Bizarrely Claims that Conference Center on Old Jewish Cemetery will ‘Lift’ Vilnius…” in Defending History, 5 October 2017. https://defendinghistory.com/lithuanias-prime-minister-bizarrely-claims-that-conference-center-on-old-jewish-cemetery-will-lift-vilnius/90332

“New ‘Litvak’ Postage Stamp Brings Pain to Lithuanian Jews, Holocaust Survivors, Yiddish Lovers” in Defending History, 25 September 2017.  https://defendinghistory.com/new-litvak-postage-stamp-brings-pain-to-lithuanian-jews-holocaust-survivors-yiddish-lovers/90224

“Historic Conference on Future of Vilna Great Synagogue Site is Open to All” in Defending History, 29 August 2017.  https://defendinghistory.com/historic-conference-on-future-of-vilna-great-synagogue-site-is-open-to-all/89733

“New NATO Film Unwittingly Glorifies Holocaust Collaborators” in Algemeiner.com, 28 August 2017. https://www.algemeiner.com/2017/08/28/new-nato-film-unwittingly-glorifies-holocaust-collaborators

“Brand New Yiddish Signs Come to Malát (Molėtai), Town in Northeast Lithuania” in Defending History, 27 August 2017. https://defendinghistory.com/brand-new-yiddish-signs-come-to-lithuanian-town-malat-moletai/89622

“Honest Error at German Embassy in Vilnius?” in Defending History, 27 August 2017.  https://defendinghistory.com/honest-error-at-german-embassy-in-vilnius/89683 

“Neo-Nazis in Lithuania Again Get “Material” from “Official” Jewish Community’s Leadership” in Defending History, 26 August 2017. https://defendinghistory.com/neo-nazis-in-lithuania-again-find-material-in-website-of-official-state-sponsored-jewish-community-of-lithuania/89662

“New Hotel on Top of Old Jewish Cemetery in Wrocław? A Challenge for Poland’s Jewish-Interest Activists and London’s CPJCE” in Defending History, 25 August 2017. https://defendinghistory.com/new-hotel-on-top-of-old-jewish-cemetery-in-wroclaw-a-challenge-for-polands-jewish-interest-activists-and-londons-cpjce/89636

“12 US Congressmen Call on Lithuania’s President to Move Convention Center Project Away from Old Vilna Jewish Cemetery” in Defending History, 13 August 2017. https://defendinghistory.com/12-us-congressmen-call-on-lithuanias-president-to-move-convention-center-project-away-from-old-vilna-jewish-cemetery/89344

“Vilnius Jewish Community Releases Letter Signed by 20 Elected Board Members Addressed to ‘Good Will Foundation’” in Defending History, 7 August 2017. https://defendinghistory.com/vilnius-jewish-community-releases-letter-signed-by-20-elected-board-members-addressed-to-good-will-foundation/89289

“Defending History Releases Yiddish Version of Julius Norwilla’s Lithuanian and English Poster for Piramónt” in Defending History, 11 July 2017.  https://defendinghistory.com/defending-history-releases-yiddish-version-of-julius-norwillas-lithuanian-and-english-poster-for-piramont/89208

“A Letter and a Dedication from the late Yesháye Epshteyn (Yeshayahu Epstein)” in Mini-Museum of Old Jewish Vilna (66), 29 June 2017.  https://defendinghistory.com/mini-museum-of-old-jewish-vilna-66 

“In Reply to 40,000 Petition Signatories, Lithuania’s Chancellor Rehashes Reliance on Allegedly Corrupt Group of London Rabbis who Reject Consensus of Litvak Rabbis Internationally” in Defending History, 14 June 2017. https://defendinghistory.com/in-reply-to-40000-petition-signatories-lithuanias-chancellor-rehashes-reliance-on-allegedly-corrupt-group-of-london-rabbis-who-reject-consensus-of-litvak-rabbis-internationally88871-2/88871 

“Neo-Nazis Pick Up Hate Materials from… (Hijacked?) Official ‘Lithuanian Jewish (Litvak) Community’ Website” in Defending History, 10 June 2017. http://defendinghistory.com/neo-nazis-pick-up-hate-materials-from-official-lithuanian-jewish-community-website/88811

“Young Vilnius Jews Converge on Jewish Community Center to Protest Rigged Election” in Defending History, 28 May 2017. https://defendinghistory.com/young-jews-converge-on-jewish-community-center-to-protest-rigged-election/88719 

“Adopting Antisemitic Trope, “Official Jewish Community Website” Blasts 300 Vilnius Jews as “Mainly Russian Speakers Calling Themselves Jews” in Defending History, 24 May 2017. https://defendinghistory.com/adopting-antisemitic-parlance-official-jewish-community-website-blasts-300-vilnius-jews-as-mainly-russian-speakers-calling-themselves-jews/88619

“Has Anti-Lithuanian Political Operative Infiltrated Official Jewish Community to Sow Turmoil?” in Defending History, 19 May 2017. https://defendinghistory.com/has-anti-lithuanian-political-operative-infiltrated-official-jewish-community-to-sow-turmoil/88505

“Arkadijus Vinokuras: Chairperson’s Henchman-Spoiler or Independent Candidate?” in Defending History, 18 May 2017. https://defendinghistory.com/arkadijus-vinokuras-chairpersons-henchman-spoiler-or-independent-candidate/88471

“Is ‘Good Will Foundation’ Enabling a Mockery of Jewish Community Democracy in Lithuania?” in Defending History, 16 May 2017. https://defendinghistory.com/is-good-will-foundation-enabling-a-mockery-of-jewish-community-democracy-in-lithuania/88397

“Fake Nationalist Menorah: New Low in Litvak Identity Theft?” in Defending History, 12 May 2017. https://defendinghistory.com/fake-nationalist-menorah-new-low-in-litvak-identity-theft/88322

“Lithuanian Jews Dismayed at New Attempt to Crush Democracy” in Defending History, 7 May 2017. https://defendinghistory.com/lithuanian-jews-dismayed-as-communitys-democracy-seems-crushed/88273

“Vilnius Jews Shocked by Maneuver to Rig the Community’s Elections” in Defending History, 21 April 2017. https://defendinghistory.com/vilnius-jews-shocked-by-maneuver-to-rig-the-communitys-elections/88092

“Would a Lithuanian Church Proceed in 2017 to Honor an Alleged Local Holocaust Perpetrator?” in Defending History, 19 April 2017. https://defendinghistory.com/would-a-lithuanian-church-proceed-in-2017-to-honor-an-alleged-local-holocaust-perpetrator/88036

“Major German Holocaust Scholar Slips (Again) into Baltic Nationalist Discourse” in Defending History, 28 March 2017. https://defendinghistory.com/major-german-holocaust-scholar-slips-again-into-baltic-nationalist-discourse/87609

“US Taxpayer-Funded Commission Mixed Up in Desecration of Old Vilna Jewish Cemetery is Reported to Senate Oversight Committee” in Defending History, 27 March 2017. https://defendinghistory.com/dc-commission-colluding-in-desecration-of-old-vilna-jewish-cemetery-is-reported-to-senate-oversight-committee/87584

“State-Sponsored “Genocide Center” Issues Document that is ‘2017’s Jew-Witch Hunt’ Against 95 Year Old Holocaust Survivor Fania Yocheles Brantsovsky” in Defending History, 26 March 2017. https://defendinghistory.com/state-sponsored-genocide-center-issues-document-that-is-2017s-jew-witch-hunt-against-95-year-old-holocaust-survivor-fania-yocheles-brantsovsky/87385

“Vilnius Jewish Community Board Issues ‘Historic Call’ for Restoration of Democracy” in Defending History, 23 March 2017. https://defendinghistory.com/vilnius-jewish-community-issues-bold-letter-demanding-a-formal-meeting-be-called/87377

“Vilnius Author of Piramónt Petition, Head of Kaunas Synagogue Present Petition’s 39,000 Signatures to Lithuanian Government” in Defending History, 21 March 2017. https://defendinghistory.com/vinius-author-of-piramont-petition-and-head-of-kaunass-choral-synagogue-present-petitions-39000-signatures-to-the-lithuanian-government/87333

“‘Statistics” Posted by the ‘Good Will Foundation’ in Vilnius” in Defending History, 19 March 2017. https://defendinghistory.com/statistics-posted-by-the-good-will-foundation-in-vilnius/87260

“Defending History’s Statement on Need for Announcement of Democratic Elections for Leadership of Lithuanian Jewish Community” in Defending History, 19 March 2017. https://defendinghistory.com/defending-historys-statement-on-urgent-need-for-announcement-of-fair-and-free-democratic-elections-for-leadership-of-the-lithuanian-jewish-community/87195

“Simóntshik Launches Campaign for Leadership of Lithuanian Jewish Community” in Defending History, 14 March 2017. https://defendinghistory.com/simontshik-launches-campaign-for-leadership-of-lithuanian-jewish-community/87113

“Over 500 Neo-Nazis Granted Center of Vilnius for March 11th Parade; A Tirade Against Holocaust Survivor Fania Yocheles Brantsovsky, 95” in Defending History, 11 March 2017. https://defendinghistory.com/over-500-neo-nazis-granted-center-of-vilnius-for-annual-march-16th-parade-tirade-against-95-year-old-holocaust-survivor-fania-yocheles-brantsovsky/86980

“London Beth Din (Rabbinical Court) Issues Summons to Two Leaders of Lithuania’s Official Jewish Community” in Defending History, 3 March 2017. https://defendinghistory.com/london-beth-din-rabbinical-court-issues-summons-to-two-leaders-of-lithuanias-official-jewish-community/86880

“Vilna or Chelm? After 22 Years of Service to Community, Rabbi is Driven from Synagogue Gates by Hired Armed Guards for Having ‘Called out Page Number'” in Defending History, 28 February 2017. https://defendinghistory.com/vilna-or-chelm-after-22-years-of-service-to-community-rabbi-is-driven-from-synagogue-gates-for-having-called-out-the-prayerbook-page-numbers-last-saturday/86832

“After ‘Blissful United Congregation’ on Sabbath, Some Leaders of “Official” Community Again Take Aim at Rabbi Krinsky” in Defending History, 27 February. https://defendinghistory.com/after-blissful-united-congregation-on-sabbath-leaders-of-vilnius-community-again-take-aim-for-rabbi-krinsky/86799

“Lithuanian Jewish Community Chairperson Faina Kukliansky Issues Powerful Statement on Annual ‘Holiday’ that Humiliates Jews and Roma” in Defending History, 27 February 2017. https://defendinghistory.com/lithuanian-jewish-community-chairperson-faina-kukliansky-issues-powerful-statement-challenging-the-annual-holiday-that-humiliates-jews-and-roma/86776

“Ethical & Cultural Level of ‘Admas Kodesh’ (/CPJCE) that is Underpinned by Taxpayer-Supported USCPAHA” in Defending History, 27 February 2017. https://defendinghistory.com/ethical-cultural-level-of-admas-kodesh-cpjce-that-is-revered-by-taxpayer-supported-uscpaha/86757

“London CPJCE Spokesman Proclaims a Soviet Ruin in Vilnius to be Lithuania’s ‘London Tower’ and its ‘Statue of Liberty'” in Defending History, 23 February 2017. https://defendinghistory.com/london-cpjce-spokesman-proclaims-a-soviet-ruin-in-vilnius-to-be-lithuanias-london-tower-and-its-statue-of-liberty/86666.  Reposted on 27 February 2017 by the Five Towns Jewish Times in the United States. http://5tjt.com/london-cpjce-spokesman-proclaims-a-soviet-ruin-in-vilnius-to-be-lithuanias-london-tower-and-its-statue-of-liberty/.

“A Year & One Month Since US Commission on Heritage Abroad (USCPAHA) “Reported to Satmar Rebba” in Monsey, N.Y.” in Defending History, 20 February 2017. https://defendinghistory.com/a-year-a-month-since-us-commission-on-heritage-abroad-uscpaha-reported-to-satmar-rebba/86546

“Neo-Nazis, Glorifying Holocaust Collaborators & Spewing Racism, Again Gifted Center of Kaunas on Lithuania’s Cherished Feb 16th Independence Day” in Defending History, 16 February 2016. https://defendinghistory.com/neo-nazis-glorifying-holocaust-collaborators-spewing-racism-again-gifted-center-of-kaunas-on-lithuanias-cherished-feb-16th-independence-day/86753

“Kaunas, Lithuania: Run-Up to the February 16th 2017 Neo-Nazi March on Independence Day” in Defending History, 15 February 2016. https://defendinghistory.com/kaunas-lithuania-run-up-to-the-february-16th-neo-nazi-march-on-independence-day/86478

“A Major New Shtetl Museum for Shádev (Shádov, Shádeve, Today’s — Šeduva)” in Defending History, 15 February 2017. https://defendinghistory.com/a-major-new-shtetl-mueseum-in-shadev-shadov-shadeve-todays-seduva/86444

“When the Picture and the Headline Tell Opposite Stories” in Defending History,  12 February 2017.  https://defendinghistory.com/when-the-picture-and-the-headline-tell-the-opposite-story/86363

Weekly of Vilnius is First to Cover Bloshtein Petition in Lithuanian Media” in Defending History, 6 February 2017. https://defendinghistory.com/the-weekly-of-vilnius-first-to-cover-bloshtein-petition-in-lithuanian-media/86240

“Additional Reading Suggestions for Participants in a Feb. 2017 Yivo Course” in Defending History, 24 January 2017. https://defendinghistory.com/additional-reading-suggestions-for-participants-in-yivos-feb-2017-holocaust-in-lithuania-course/86078

“Song of Songs translated into Lithuanian Yiddish”, posted 20 January 2017. https://defendinghistory.com/song-of-songs-in-lithuanian-yiddish

“Reply to Rabbi Herschel Gluck” in Defending History, 17 January 2017. https://defendinghistory.com/rabbi-hershel-gluck-obe-speaks-to-jewish-chronicle-trashing-the-international-petition-with-34000-signatures/85915

“CPJCE’S American Affiliate Calls 34,000 Petition Signers ‘Evil People'” in Defending History, 17 January 2017. https://defendinghistory.com/cpjces-american-affiliate-calls-34000-petition-signers-evil-people/85935

“Official Community’s Private Security Force Again Bars Rabbi Sholom Ber Krinsky from Sabbath Services” in Defending History, 9 January 2017. https://defendinghistory.com/official-communitys-private-security-force-again-bars-rabbi-sholom-ber-krinsky-from-sabbath-services/85737

“Ecclesiastes translated into Lithuanian Yiddish”, posted 5 January 2017.  https://defendinghistory.com/the-book-of-ecclesiastes-in-lithuanian-yiddish.

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“Antisemitism in the Twenty-First Century Shtetl” in ISGAP Flashpoint, no. 38. http://isgap.org/flashpoint/antisemitism-in-the-21st-century-shtetl/

“Is Eastern European ‘Double Genocide’ Revisionism Reaching Museums?” in Dapim: Studies on the Holocaust, vol. 30.3: 1–30 [Nov. 2016]. http://www.tandfonline.com/doi/full/10.1080/23256249.2016.1242043https://defendinghistory.com/wp-content/uploads/2017/01/Dovid-Katz-2016-Dapim-paper-PROOF-ONLY.pdf 

“Barring a Jew from Prayer Services is a Human Rights Issue” in Defending History, 1 November 2016. https://defendinghistory.com/where-barring-a-jew-from-synagogue-services-becomes-a-human-rights-issue/84523.

“Did ‘Double Genocide’ Just Get to the O’Reilly Factor?” in Defending History, 22 October 2016. https://defendinghistory.com/did-double-genocide-just-get-to-the-oreilly-factor/84320

“When ‘Putin’ Becomes an Excuse for Hitler-Glorification’ in Jewish Currents, 10 October 2016.  http://isgap.org/flashpoint/butchering-history-but-not-the-jews-the-case-of-post-revolutionary-ukraine/

“Yiddish Loses Last Global Position as Symbolic ‘First Jewish Language’ in Vilnius” in Defending History, 20 September 2016. https://defendinghistory.com/yiddish-loses-last-global-position-as-symbolic-first-jewish-language-in-vilna/83979

“Media coverage of the Malát (Molėtai) Holocaust Remembrance Project” in Defending History. 14 September 2016. https://defendinghistory.com/media-coverage-of-the-malat-moletai-holocaust-remembrance-project-selection/83789

“Att. Mr. Mayor of Vilnius: Streets Named for Hitler’s Local Partners, and Plans for Congress Center on Top of Old Jewish Cemetery’ in Defending History, 13 September 2016. https://defendinghistory.com/att-mr-mayor-of-vilnius-streets-named-for-hitlers-local-partners-and-plans-for-congress-center-on-old-jewish-cemetery/83186

“Editor’s Comment on a Yad Vashem Group Visiting Lithuania” in Defending History, 11 September 2016.  https://defendinghistory.com/editors-comment-on-a-yad-vashem-group-visiting-lithuania/83826

“August and September 2016 Memorials for Destroyed Jewish Communities” in Defending History, 4 September 2016. https://defendinghistory.com/august-and-september-2016-memorials-for-destroyed-jewish-communities/83776

“2016 Deterioration of Holocaust History and of Freedom of Speech in Poland” in Defending History, 2 September 2016. https://defendinghistory.com/2016-deterioration-of-holocaust-history-and-of-freedom-of-speech-in-poland/83803

“How Does a 21th Century Municipality of a Former Shtetl Deal with its Annihilated Jewish Population?” on Facebook, 30 August 2016. https://www.facebook.com/dovid.katz/posts/1324916140872928

Séyfer Yóyne” [‘Book of Jonah’: Bible translation into Lithuanian Yiddish], 28 August 2016. https://defendinghistory.com/%20the-book-of-jonah-in-lithuanian-yiddish

Megílas Éykho” [‘Book of Lamentations’: Bible translation into Lithuanian Yiddish], 21 August 2016. https://defendinghistory.com/the-book-of-lamentations-in-lithuanian-yiddish

Baltic Red-Brown “Nazi-Soviet Hunter” Featured at Brazil’s Olympics in Rio” in Defending History, 12 August 2016. Defending History: ‘Baltic Red-Brown “Nazi-Soviet Hunter” Featured at Brazil’s Olympics in Rio’.

“Interpretation of a 19th century Belarusian rabbi’s comments on the phonetics and phonology of Ashkenazic Hebrew”, Responsum no. 3 in Yiddish Linguistics series, 9 August 2016. https://defendinghistory.com/responsa-in-yiddish-linguistics-by-dovid-katz#giml

“But Who is Against the National Congress Center in the Old Vilna Jewish cemetery?” [annotated bibliography of publications to date, in progress] in Defending History, 8 August 2016. Defending History: [updated version of] ‘But who is against the National Congress Center in the old Vilna Jewish cemetery?’

“Lithuanian State Bank and Major UK Firm Seem Deeply Involved in Vilnius Jewish Cemetery Scandal” in Defending History, 8 August 2016. https://defendinghistory.com/turto-bankas-announces-national-congress-center-project-in-heart-of-vilnas-old-jewish-cemetery/82905

Séyfer Doníyel” [‘Book of Daniel’: Bible translation into Lithuanian Yiddish; Aramaic parts of Daniel into older version of Northeastern Yiddish], 7 August 2016. https://defendinghistory.com/the-book-of-daniel-in-lithuanian-yiddish

“Wiesenthal Center Calls on Kaunas Mayor to End Abuse of “Seventh Fort”; Pressure Builds on Vilnius Mayor’s Jewish Politics” in Defending History, 2 August 2016. https://defendinghistory.com/wiesenthal-center-calls-on-kaunas-mayor-to-act-on-holocaust-mass-murder-site-used-for-weddings-and-fun/82797

“When Yiddish is a Prop for Holocaust Revisionism” in Defending History, 24 July 2016. https://defendinghistory.com/when-yiddish-is-a-prop-for-holocaust-revisionism/82568

“Defending History Responds to Vilnius Architects’ Visualizations for National Convention Center in the Old Vilna Jewish cemetery” in Defending History, 15 July 2016. https://defendinghistory.com/defending-history-responds-to-vilnius-architects-three-visualizations-for-convention-center-in-the-jewish-cemetery/82384

“Joseph Levinson’s 1990s Map of Lithuanian Mass Murder Sites is Released by Family” in Defending History, 11 July 2016. https://defendinghistory.com/joseph-levinsons-1990s-map-of-lithuanian-mass-murder-sites-is-released-by-family/82278

“Latest Judicial Abuse of an East European Country’s Redefinition of “Genocide” to Obfuscate the Holocaust” in Defending History, 10 July 2016. https://defendinghistory.com/latest-judicial-abuse-of-an-east-european-countrys-redefinition-of-genocide-to-obfuscate-the-holocaust/82261

“In Response to the Media” in Defending History, 9 July 2016. https://defendinghistory.com/in-reponse-to-the-media-9-july-2016/82236

“Asra Kadisha on Vilna Cemetery: From Proud Powerhouse of Historic Truth to Silent Mouse?” in Defending History, 15 June 2016.  https://defendinghistory.com/asra-kadisha-on-vilna-cemetery-from-proud-pillar-of-historic-truth-to-silent-mouse/81819

“Ruta Bloshtein Discovers 1935 Vilna Rabbis’ Condemnation of Plans to Desecrate Old Jewish Cemetery at Piramónt” in Defending History, 9 June 2016. https://defendinghistory.com/ruta-bloshtein-discovers-1935-vilna-council-of-rabbis-document-condemning-plans-to-build-on-the-old-jewish-cemetery-at-piramont-in-snipiskes/81657

San Francisco Examiner Bamboozled?” in Defending History, 3 June 2016. https://defendinghistory.com/san-francisco-examiner-bamboozled/81565

“On the Age of Lithuanian Yiddish”, Responsum no. 2 in Yiddish Linguistics series, 8 June 2016. https://defendinghistory.com/responsa-in-yiddish-linguistics-by-dovid-katz#beyz

“When the EU Finances Far-Right Holocaust Revisionism” in Global International Analytics (GIA), 24 May 2016. https://gianalytics.org/992-when-the-eu-finances-far-right-holocaust-revisionism

“If Not Higher Still” [new Russian translation by Julia Rets of the short story Oyb nisht nokh klíger in Misnágdishe Máyses (1996)] in Мы здесь,  10-16 May 2016. http://newswe.com/index.php?go=Pages&in=view&id=8846

“The Battle for the Memory of the Holocaust in Eastern Europe” in Novaya Gazeta (Baltics), 4 May 2016. http://novayagazeta.ee/articles/5859/

“West is West, East is East: The Specific East European Incarnation of Antisemitism” in Flashpoint (ISGAP), 8 April 2016.  http://isgap.org/flashpoint/west-is-west-east-is-east-the-specific-east-european-incarnation-of-antisemitism/

“What’s Behind the West’s Wall of Silence on East European Glorification of Nazi Collaboration?” in Global Independent Analytics (GIA), 29 March 2016. https://gianalytics.org/629-what-s-behind-the-west-s-wall-of-silence-on-eastern-europe-s-glorification-of-nazi-collaboration.  French translation: http://arretsurinfo.ch/quy-a-t-il-derriere-le-mur-de-silence-occidental-sur-la-glorification-de-la-collaboration-nazie-en-leurope-de-lest/https://www.les-crises.fr/quy-a-t-il-derriere-le-mur-de-silence-occidental-sur-la-glorification-de-la-collaboration-nazie-en-leurope-de-lest-par-dovid-katz/.

“Lithuania: Where the Government Agrees (In Part) with Neo-Nazi Marchers’ in Global International Analytics (GIA), 8 March 2016.  https://gianalytics.org/475-lithuania-where-the-government-agrees-in-part-with-neo-nazi-marchers

“Vilnius Prosecutor Skirts Key Question: Will the List of Alleged Holocaust Perpetrators be Made Public?’ in Defending History, 3 March 2016. https://defendinghistory.com/vilnius-prosecutor-skirts-key-question-will-the-list-of-alleged-holocaust-perpetrators-be-made-public/80081

“Israel’s Foreign Ministry Faces a Lithuanian Dilemma” in Defending History, 26 January 2016.  https://defendinghistory.com/israels-foreign-ministry-faces-a-lithuanian-dilemma/79892

“Images from the February 16th 2016 Neo-Nazi March in Kaunas” in Defending History, 16 February 2016.  https://defendinghistory.com/images-from-the-february-16th-2016-neo-nazi-march-in-kaunas-lithuania/79731

Massive new Vilnius Construction Site Borders City’s Old Jewish Cemetery Site” in Defending History, 14 February 2016.  https://defendinghistory.com/massive-new-vilnius-construction-site-borders-citys-old-jewish-cemetery-site/79690

Sugihara abused? Red-Brown Commission Ropes in Japanese Embassy for 11 Feb. Event” in Defending History, 4 February 2016.  https://defendinghistory.com/sugihara-abused-red-brown-commission-ropes-in-japanese-embassy-for-11-feb-event/79442 

“An Open Letter to Holocaust Scholars and Educators in the Francophone World” in Defending History, 18 January 2016. https://defendinghistory.com/an-open-letter-to-holocaust-scholars-and-educators-in-the-francophone-world/79189

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Yiddish and Power. Palgrave Macmillan: Basingstoke and New York 2015. http://www.palgrave.com/page/detail/yiddish-and-power-dovid-katz/?k=9780230517608&loc=uk

I Kings in Lithuanian Yiddish: Vilnius 2015. https://defendinghistory.com/74250-2II Kings in Lithuanian Yiddish: Vilnius 2016 in progress. https://defendinghistory.com/ii-kings-in-lithuanian-yiddish


“Ber Horowitz’s Six 1929 Portraits of Vilna Yiddish Intellectuals” [in Yiddish] in Mini-Museum of Old Jewish Vilna (63), 27 December 2015. https://defendinghistory.com/mini-museum-of-old-jewish-vilna-63

“Is Lithuania’s President Distancing Herself from Prime Minister’s “Religious Zeal” for the “Convention Center in the Old Jewish Cemetery”? in Defending History, 23 December 2015. https://defendinghistory.com/is-lithuanias-president-distancing-herself-from-prime-ministers-religious-zeal-for-the-convention-center-in-the-old-jewish-cemetery-in-vilnius/78556

“Lithuania’s Liveliest Cemetery” in The Times of Israel, 13 December 2015. http://blogs.timesofisrael.com/lithuanias-liveliest-cemetery/

“A 1930 Petition in Yiddish and Polish Opposing the League of Nations’ Calendar Reform Plan” [in Yiddish] in Mini-Museum of Old Jewish Vilna (62), 13 December 2015. https://defendinghistory.com/mini-museum-of-old-jewish-vilna-62

“Hanukkah in Vilnius” in Lithuania Tribune, 8 December 2015. https://defendinghistory.com/wp-content/uploads/2016/05/Hanukkah-in-Vilnius-EN.pdf.   http://en.delfi.lt/lithuania/society/hanukkah-in-vilnius.d?id=69789450

“A Lead Seal of Kashruth, in Yiddish and Polish, from Vilna’s Yatkever gas” [in Yiddish] in Mini-Museum of Old Jewish Vilna (61), 22 November 2015. https://defendinghistory.com/mini-museum-of-old-jewish-vilna-61

“A 1916 Vilna German Postcard Featuring Four Local Languages: Belarusian, Lithuanian, Polish and Yiddish” [in Yiddish] in Mini-Museum of Old Jewish Vilna (60), 16 November 2015. https://defendinghistory.com/mini-museum-of-old-jewish-vilna-60

“Question in the UK Parliament on the Old Jewish Cemetery in Vilnius” in Defending History, 12 November 2015. https://defendinghistory.com/question-in-the-uk-parliament-on-the-old-jewish-cemetery-in-vilnius/77989

“Vilnius Mayor Plays with Fire: Yiddish, Pilfered Jewish Gravestones, and an Olympics of ‘Barbarism'” in Defending History, 11 November 2015. https://defendinghistory.com/vilnius-mayor-plays-with-fire-yiddish-pilfered-jewish-gravestones-and-an-olympics-of-barbarism/77957

“As Rothschild Conference Winds Up in Vilnius, Kaunas Religious Jewish Community Issues Statement of Defiance” in Defending History, 29 October 2015. https://defendinghistory.com/date/2015/10

“Rothschild (of London) Finances ‘Closed’ Conference (in Vilnius) on Jewish Cemeteries (That May be Cover for Most Painful Desecration Yet of Vilna’s Old Jewish Cemetery)” in Defending History, 14 October 2015. https://defendinghistory.com/rothschild-london-finance-closed-conference-in-vilnius-on-jewish-cemeteries-duped-by-government-and-property-developers-interests/77615

“Run-Up to a Vilnius Rothschild Foundation (London) Conference” in Defending History, 12 October 2015. https://defendinghistory.com/run-up-to-a-vilnius-rothschild-foundation-london-conference/77824

“Impressions of the 11 October 2015 Memorial Program in Svintsyán (Švenčionys)” in Defending History, 11 October 2015. https://defendinghistory.com/impresssions-of-the-11-october-2015-memorial-program-in-svintsyan-svencionys/77546

“First Moral Victory in the EU, in Effort to Prevent Unprecedented Desecration of Old Vilna Jewish Cemetery” in Defending History, 9 October 2015. https://defendinghistory.com/office-of-eu-president-juncker-denies-european-funding-will-be-available-for-vilnius-convention-center-in-the-cemetery/77457

“Purveyor of Racist, Misogynist, Antisemitic, Homophobic, Nazist ‘Art’ is Alleged to Work in Lithuania’s Economy Ministry” in Defending History, 9 October 2015. https://defendinghistory.com/purveyor-of-racist-misogynist-antisemitic-homophobic-nazist-art-is-alleged-to-work-in-lithuanias-economy-ministry/77499

“Police Prevent Kaunas Jewish Guide Chaim Bargman from Attending Annual Memorial for the Annihilated Jews of Ukmergė (Vilkomir)” in Defending History, 4 October 2015. https://defendinghistory.com/police-prevent-kaunas-jewish-guide-chaim-bargman-from-attending-annual-memorial-for-the-annihilated-jews-of-ukmerge-vilkomir/77338

“Another ‘Conference on Antisemitism’ in Lithuania” in Defending History, 1 October 2015. https://defendinghistory.com/another-conference-on-antisemitism-in-lithuania/77290

“Suspicions Rise on Role of ‘U.S. Commission for Preservation of America’s Heritage Abroad’ in Plans to Build a $25,000,000 Convention Center in Heart of Vilnius’s Old Jewish Cemetery” in Defending History, 27 September 2015. https://defendinghistory.com/suspicions-rise-on-role-of-u-s-commission-for-preservation-of-americas-heritage-abroad-in-plans-to-build-a-25000000-convention-center-in-heart-of-vilniuss-old-jewish-cemetery/77112

“Vilnius Names Street for Beloved Lithuanian Rescuer Ona Šimaitė” in Defending History, 25 September 2015. https://defendinghistory.com/vilnius-names-street-for-beloved-lithuanian-rescuer-ona-simaite/77166

“Ponár (Paneriai) Commemoration on Lithuania’s Annual Holocaust Day is Dejudaicized Even More in ‘Nationalist Takeover of Litvak Heritage’: No Rabbi, No Cantor, No Kaddish” in Defending History, 22 September 2015. https://defendinghistory.com/ponar-paneriai-memorial-no-rabbi-no-cantor-no-kaddish/77600

“Ninetieth Anniversary Yivo Conference in Vilnius is Major Success” in Defending History, 20 September 2015. https://defendinghistory.com/90th-anniversary-yivo-conference-in-vilnius-is-a-major-success/77091

“Israel Faced Some Delicate Post-Holocaust Issues During Lithuanian PM’s September Visit” in Defending History, 15 September 2015. https://defendinghistory.com/israel-faced-some-delicate-post-holocaust-issues-during-lithuanian-pms-september-visit/78009

“New Jewish Monument in Rokiškis (Rákeshik), Lithuania, Commemorates Three Synagogues” in Defending History, 8 September 2015. https://defendinghistory.com/new-jewish-monument-in-rokiskis-rakeshik-lithuania-commemorates-3-synagogues/76902

“Lithuanian Post Office Honors Sugihara and Zwartendijk on 75th Anniversary of ‘Visas for Life'” in Defending History, 4 September 2015. https://defendinghistory.com/76832/76832

“U.S. Rep of London Rabbis Involved with Vilnius Cemetery Fiasco Boasts of Photo-ops at the U.S. Commission for the Preservation of America’s Heritage Abroad” in Defending History, 26 August 2015.  https://defendinghistory.com/ally-of-london-rabbis-involved-with-vilnius-cemetery-fiasco-boasts-of-photo-ops-at-the-us-commission-for-the-preservation-of-americas-heritage-abroad/76591

“London ‘Graveyard Rabbis’ Issue Statement that Fails to Mention Cemetery Convention Center (CCC)’ in Defending History, 23 August 2015. https://defendinghistory.com/london-graveyard-rabbis-issue-statement-that-fails-to-mention-convention-center/7653

“Motke Chabad Weighs In on Vilnius Debate over an Old Jewish Cemetery” [Yiddish and English] in Defending History, 21 August 2015.  https://defendinghistory.com/motke-chabad-weighs-in-on-vilnius-cemetery-debate/76415

“A Tale of Two Tweets” in Defending History, 7 August 2015. https://defendinghistory.com/tale-of-two-tweets/76053

“Double Genocide Discourse Now Standard for the New York Times?” in Defending History, 23 July 2015. https://defendinghistory.com/double-genocide-discourse-now-standard-for-the-new-york-times/75642

“Open Letter to Members of CPJCE in the UK: Do You Really Want a Convention Center in the Heart of Vilna’s Old Jewish Cemetery?” in Defending History, 21 July 2015. https://defendinghistory.com/open-letter-to-members-of-cpjce-in-the-uk-do-you-really-want-a-convention-center-in-the-heart-of-vilnas-old-jewish-cemetery/75500

“Chronology of the 2015 Vilna Jewish Cemetery Debate” [updated to latest date listed]. https://defendinghistory.com/2015-dispute-on-vilnius-reconstruction-of-sports-arena-on-site-of-old-vilna-jewish-cemetery

“Media Tracker on Holocaust Obfuscation, Double Genocide and East European Antisemitism” [updated to latest date listed]. https://defendinghistory.com/media

“Were Rabbis, U.S. Jewish Leaders, a U.S. Gov. Agency and the EU Manipulated into Supporting a $25,000,000 Convention Center on Vilna’s Old Jewish Cemetery?” in Defending History, 14 June 2015 [with updates as listed]. https://defendinghistory.com/are-rabbis-u-s-jewish-leaders-a-u-s-gov-agency-and-the-eu-manipulated-into-supporting-plans-for-25000000-convention-center-on-vilnas-old-jewish-cemetery-site/74456

“SLS’s 2015 Sutzkever Prize: Yiddish Poetry Serving Right-Wing East European Politics” in Defending History, 21 May 2015. https://defendinghistory.com/slss-2015-sutzkever-prize-yiddish-poetry-serving-right-wing-east-european-politics/74033

“From Holocaust Envy to Holocaust Theft” in The Times of Israel, 11 May 2015. http://blogs.timesofisrael.com/from-holocaust-envy-to-holocaust-theft/

“Double Genocide in Action? Victims and Perpetrators Interchangeable” in Defending History, 23 April 2015. https://defendinghistory.com/red-brown-commission-boss-speaks-out-on-brantsovsky-investigation-and-his-understanding-of-the-holocaust/71178

“Politics, Policy, and Lithuanian Holocaust Discourse” at the International Conference on Holocaust Education at Vilnius City Hall on 17 April 2015. Text version: https://defendinghistory.com/dovid-katzs-lecture-at-vilnius-conference-on-17-april-2015/73111.  In Lithuanian translation (18 May 2015): https://defendinghistory.com/lithuanian-translation-of-dovid-katzs-april-17-2015-vilnius-conference-lecture/73862

“Twelve Issues in the Preservation of Lithuania’s Material Jewish Heritage (2015)” in Defending History, 1 May 2015.  https://defendinghistory.com/urgent-jewish-material-heritage-issues-in-lithuania-2015/73482

“A priváter shtempl fun Yítskhok [ben?] Eliézer” in Yiddish Virtual Mini-Museum of Old Jewish Vilna, 57, 26 March 2015.  https://defendinghistory.com/mini-museum-of-old-jewish-vilna-57

“A  séyferl shàyles-utshúves af tsvey masekhtóes, gedrúkt in Venedik (Venétsye) 1605-1606 mitn amólikn shtempl fun vílner biblyoték fun Matisyóhu Strashún” in Yiddish Virtual Mini-Museum of Old Jewish Vilna, 56, 22 March 2015.  https://defendinghistory.com/mini-museum-of-old-jewish-vilna-56

“A glézerne telerl (oder tetsl) mit mogn-dóvids un tshikáve tséykhenishn” in Yiddish Virtual Mini-Museum of Old Jewish Vilna, 53, 8 March 2015.  https://defendinghistory.com/mini-museum-of-old-jewish-vilna-53

“Kháyim-Nákhmen Shapíro’s Kóvner bukh af lítvish fun 1935 vegn der téme: Vílne in der poézye vos af hebréyish un yídish” in Yiddish Virtual Mini-Museum of Old Jewish Vilna, 52, 6 March 2015.  https://defendinghistory.com/mini-museum-of-old-jewish-vilna-52

“A hebréyishe rekláme far der ‘Gimnásya Ivrit Zaválni num. 4’ in der tsiyenístisher ‘Yídisher tsáytung’ un Vílne funem 8tn óygust 1919” in Yiddish Virtual Mini-Museum of Old Jewish Vilna, 50, 22 February 2015.  https://defendinghistory.com/keepsakes-of-old-jewish-vilna-50

“A reshíme fun zibn-un-tsvántsik kloyzn (bótey-midróshim) in Vílne (in Zálmen Réyzen’s Vílner ‘Tog’ fun dráysikstn detsémber 1921” in Yiddish Virtual Mini-Museum of Old Jewish Vilna, 47, 8 February 2015.  https://defendinghistory.com/keepsakes-of-old-jewish-vilna-47

“Kaunas Police Informs defending History on Status of February 16th Neo-Nazi March” in Defending History, 3 February 2015.  https://defendinghistory.com/kaunas-police-informs-defending-history-on-status-of-february-16th-neo-nazi-march/71152

“Three Holocaust Remembrance Day Events in Vilnius” in Defending History, 26 January 2015. https://defendinghistory.com/three-holocaust-remembrance-day-events-in-vilnius-on-26-january-2015/70892

“Di matóne fun Rívke bas Shmúel in Takság (1832-1833)” in Yiddish Virtual Mini-Museum of Old Jewish Vilna, 45, 22 January 2015. https://defendinghistory.com/keepsakes-of-old-jewish-vilna-45

“A Vílner paródye af Móyshe Kúlbaks bavúst lid Shterndl” in Yiddish Virtual Mini-Museum of Old Jewish Vilna, 44, 16 January 2015. https://defendinghistory.com/keepsakes-of-old-jewish-vilna-44

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“Two ‘C-words’ for Holocaust Museums: Center of Town, and — Collaboration” in Defending History, 24 December 2014. https://defendinghistory.com/real-challenge-architects-bernotaite-pucka-ropolas-vaitiekunas/70423

“Just about Yiddish? The Real Story Behind This Week’s Yivo Banquet in New York” in Algemeiner. com,16 December 2014. In print edition of 19 December 2014.  https://defendinghistory.com/wp-content/uploads/2015/01/Dovid-Katz-on-Yivo-banquet-19-Dec-2014.pdf;   http://www.algemeiner.com/2014/12/16/just-about-yiddish-the-real-story-behind-this-week%E2%80%99s-yivo-banquet-in-new-york/

“A shtikl yídisher drúk-blay af dray yídishe shprakhn, mit dray shriftn” in Yiddish Virtual Mini-Museum of Old Jewish Vilna, 42, 7 December 2014.  https://defendinghistory.com/keepsakes-jewish-vilna-42

“Ukraine Bonanza for Upgraded Holocaust Denial” in The Times of Israel, 28 November 2014. http://blogs.timesofisrael.com/ukraine-bonanza-for-upgraded-holocaust-denial/

“Peter Jukes Exposes ‘Documentary’ that Glorifies Nazi Collaborators” in Defending History, 28 November 2014.  https://defendinghistory.com/peter-jukess-tweet-exposes-documentary-glorifies-nazi-collaborators/69815

“Text of US Rep. John Conyers’ Proposed Amendment Restricting Aid to Pro-Nazi Forces in Ukraine” in Defending History, 23 November 2014.  https://defendinghistory.com/text-rep-john-conyers-proposed-amendment-stopping-aid-pro-nazi-forces-ukraine/69739

“Meilach Stalevich (1923 — 2014)” in Defending History, 11 November 2014.  https://defendinghistory.com/meilach-stalevich-1923-2014/69456

“Defending History Brings Results: Yivo to Honor Arad (at Fundraising Banquet)” in Defending History, 10 November 2014.  https://defendinghistory.com/defending-history-brings-results-yivo-honor-arad-at-fundraising-banquet/69445

“Latvian Musical that Sanitizes Holocaust Perpetrator Starts its Grand Tour” in Defending History, 31 October 2014.  https://defendinghistory.com/latvian-musical-glorifies-holocaust-mass-murderer-openson-october-11th/69177

“Would They Try to Instrumentalize Simon Wiesenthal, Too? An Open Letter to Inna Rogatchi” in Defending History, 26 October 2014.  https://defendinghistory.com/open-letter-inna-rogatchi/69272

“Riva Shpiz’s Memories of 23 June 1941 in Dugalíshik (Daugeliškis), taped Yiddish interview, 12 October 2014. https://www.youtube.com/watchv=vdZsmK4muBg&feature=youtu.be

Die Prager Deklaration” in Jüdische Rundschau, 8 October 2014.  http://juedischerundschau.de/die-prager-deklaration/

“Annual Memorial for the Jews of Svintsyán (Švenčionys): Small but Well Done’ by Dovid Katz, in Defending History, 5 October 2014.  https://defendinghistory.com/annual-memorial-svintsyan-svencionys-small/69090.  Reprinted in The Lithuania Tribune – Delfi English at:  http://en.delfi.lt/lithuania/society/annual-memorial-for-the-jews-of-svintsyan-svencionys-small-but-well-done.d?id=66061010

“Poland is not Ukraine” in Jewish Review of Books, Fall 2014.  http://jewishreviewofbooks.com/articles/1186/poland-is-not-ukraine-a-response-to-konstanty-geberts-the-ukrainian-question/

“Seven Prophet Amos Awards for Human Rights Courage in Lithuania” in Defending History, 24 September 2014.  https://defendinghistory.com/defending-history-award-prophet-amos-awards-human-rights-lithuania-5774-2014-2015/68862

“Usable Memory of Holocaust Victims: NY Yivo Announces Campaign for Five and a Quarter Million Dollars for New ‘Vilna Project’” in Defending History, 23 September 2014.  https://defendinghistory.com/usable-memory-holocaust-victims-n-y-yivo-announces-request-quarter-million-dollars-vilna-project/68974

“Tsemakh Shabad’s 150th birthday celebrated in style at the Lithuanian parliament” in Defending History, 21 September 2014.  https://defendinghistory.com/tsemakh-shabads-150th-birthday-celebrated-style-lithuanian-parliament/68865

“75 Jahre nach dem 1. September 1939: Antisemitismus in Osteuropa” in Jüdische Rundschau, 9 September 2014.  http://juedischerundschau.de/75-jahre-nach-dem-1-september-1939-antisemitismus-osteuropa/

“The Hushed-Up Hitler Factor in Ukraine” in Consortium News, 16 August 2014.  http://consortiumnews.com/2014/08/16/the-hushed-up-hitler-factor-in-ukraine/

“Osten ist Osten und Westen ist Westen” in Jüdische Rundschau, 7 August 2014.  http://juedischerundschau.de/osten-ist-osten-und-westen-ist-westen/ [excerpt only]

“Yankl-Yosl Bunk – Jakovas Bunka (1923 – 2014)” in Defending History, 4 August 2014.  https://defendinghistory.com/yankl-yosl-bunk-jakovas-bunka-1923-2014/68121

“Rabbi Abraham. N. Zuroff (1922 – 2014)” in Defending History, 4 August 2014.  https://defendinghistory.com/rabbi-dr-abraham-n-zuroff-1922-2014/68125

“The Neocons and Holocaust Revisionism in Eastern Europe”, Part I in Jewish Currents, 22 July 2014.  http://jewishcurrents.org/neocons-holocaust-revisionism-eastern-europe-30613.  Part II in Jewish Currents, 26 July 2014.  http://jewishcurrents.org/neocons-holocaust-revisionism-eastern-europe-continued-30677

“Is ‘Sugar Herbert Sugar’ the Latvian Version of ‘Springtime for Hitler’?” in Defending History, 17 July 2014.  https://defendinghistory.com/sugar-herbert-sugar-latvian-version-springtime-hitler/67785https://defendinghistory.com/sugar-herbert-sugar-latvian-version-springtime-hitler/67785

“Tsu der zórglozer dekonstrúktsye fun Maks Váynraykhn (un shoyn váyter kunkl-múnkl afn ópgeshavkhtn gebít fun yídish”) [English title provided: “Freewheeling Deconstruction of Max Weinreich. Sensationalization of the Fragile Field of Yiddish”] in Defending History, 22 June 2014 (+ addendum of 23 June 2014) [in reply to articles by Cherie Woodworth and Batya Ungar-Sargon in Tablet magazine].  https://defendinghistory.com/freewheeling-deconstruction-max-weinreich-ongoing-machinations-weakened-field-yiddish

“Getting it Wrong on Ukraine” in The Times of Israel, 10 June 2014. http://blogs.timesofisrael.com/the-tarnished-hukraine/

“Reply to a Roger Cohen Opinion Piece on Ukraine and Lithuania” in Defending History, 6 May 2014. https://defendinghistory.com/reply-roger-cohen-opinion-piece-ukraine-lithuania/65919

“[Review of Mink & Neumayer (eds), History, Memory and Politics in Central and Eastern Europe: Memory Games] in East European Jewish Affairs, 44.1 (April 2014): 111-114.  https://defendinghistory.com/wp-content/uploads/2014/04/Proof-of-Review-of-Minkes-and-Neumayer-Dovid-Katz-2014.pdf

“Is Vilnius Police Criminal Division Harassing Veteran Holocaust Researcher?” in Defending History, 31 March 2014.  https://defendinghistory.com/vilnius-polices-criminal-division-harassing-veteran-holocaust-researcher/65215

“For Seventh Year Running, Neo-Nazis and Ultranationalists Given Center of Vilnius on Independence Day” in Defending History, 11 March 2014.  https://defendinghistory.com/seventh-year-running-neo-nazis-ultranationalists-center-vilnius-independence-day/64617

“New Joseph Levinson Website has Page on Old Jewish Cemeteries in Lithuania” in Defending History, 2 February 2014.  https://defendinghistory.com/new-joseph-levinson-website-has-page-on-old-jewish-cemeteries-in-lithuania/63235

“Yiddish Virtual Mini-Museum of Old Jewish Vilna” (web only).  https://defendinghistory.com/keepsakes-of-old-jewish-vilna-index

“Knaanic in the Medieval and Modern Scholarly Imagination” in O. Bláha, R. Dittmann and L. Uličná (eds), Knaanic Language: Structure and Historical Background, Academia: Prague 2014 [in press].  http://www.dovidkatz.net/ToyShop/Proof%20only%20of%20Dovid%20Katz,%20KNAANIC%20IN%20THE%20MEDIEVAL%20&%20MODERN%20SCHOLARLY%20IMAGINATION%20(29%20Aug%202013).pdf

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“Reconstructing the Sound Pattern of Nineteenth Century Ashkenazic Hebrew Poetry in Vilna” [in Yiddish] in Keepsakes of Old Jewish Vilna, no. 22, 2013.  https://defendinghistory.com/keepsakes-of-old-jewish-vilna-22

“Lithuania’s Holocaust Debate” (letter to the editor), International New York Times, 20 November 2013.  http://www.nytimes.com/2013/11/20/opinion/germany-france-and-trade.html

“Genocide Center Releases a New Graywash on the Vilna Ghetto” (review of A. Bubnys, Vilnius Ghetto 1941 – 1943, Vilnius 2013) in Defending History, 19 November 2013. https://defendinghistory.com/genocide-center-releases-a-new-graywash-on-the-vilna-ghetto/60925

“Three Baltic Governments Sponsor “Round Table” at London U on 5 November: Will Nazi Collaborators be Glorified? in Defending History, 23 October 2013.  https://defendinghistory.com/will-ucl-the-school-of-slavonic-studies-include-the-darker-side-of-the-story/60001

“Mendel Beilis and the New East European Antisemitism: a 21st Century Incarnation of ‘Treacherous Jew Syndrome” (power point presentation at Mendel Beilis centenary conference in Kiev, Ukraine, 15 October 2013).  https://defendinghistory.com/wp-content/uploads/2013/10/PDF-of-Dovid-Katzs-Kiev-Oct-15-2013-PP.pdf

“Where Nazi Collaborators and Criminals are Honoured by EU and NATO States” in Hope not Hate, July-August 2013: 40-41.  https://defendinghistory.com/wp-content/uploads/2013/07/Dovid-Katz-in-Hope-Not-Hate-July-August-2013.pdf

“Who’s Afraid of Defending History Dot Com?” in Defending History, 8 August 2013.  https://defendinghistory.com/fear-of-defending-history-dotcom/57482

“Mystery of the Eight-Pointed Western Litvak (Zámeter) Symbol on Jewish Gravestones” in Defending History, 7 August 2013.  https://defendinghistory.com/mystery-of-the-eight-pointed-western-litvak-zameter-star-of-david-on-jewish-gravestones/57393

“Open Letter to Evaldas Gustas, new Minister for the Economy in Lithuania” in Defending History, 2 August 2013. https://defendinghistory.com/an-open-letter-to-the-new-economy-minister-of-lithuania-evaldas-gustas/54582

“EHU Center for German Studies’ ‘Colloquium Vilnense 2013’ is Short on ‘The Second Opinion’ when it comes to the Holocaust” in Defending History, 19 July 2013.  https://defendinghistory.com/ehus-center-for-german-studies-colloquium-vilnense-2013-is-short-of-the-second-opinion-on-holocaust-memory/56444

“Would a ‘Jewish Museum’ in Vilnius Graywash the Lithuanian Holocaust?” in Defending History, 7 July 2013.  https://defendinghistory.com/would-a-jewish-museum-in-vilnius-graywash-the-lithuanian-holocaust/55902

[review of M. J. Chodakiewicz, Intermarium: The Land Between the Black and Baltic Seas] in Israel Journal of Foreign Affairs 7.2 [Spring 2013]: 169-175.  https://defendinghistory.com/wp-content/uploads/2013/03/Dovid-Katz-review-of-Intermarium-in-Israel-Journal-of-Foreign-Affairs-7-2-2013.pdf

“State-Sponsored Collective Memory Revisionism: A 21st Century Incarnation of Holocaust Denial?” PDF presentation at the Second International Conference on Holocaust Museums and Memorial Places in Post-Communist Countries (Riga, Latvia).  https://defendinghistory.com/wp-content/uploads/2013/05/Riga-final-27-May-2013.pdf

“The Fate of a Vilna Jewish Cemetery” in The Times of Israel, 22 May 2013 [Reprinted with commentary in Jewish Heritage Europe].  http://blogs.timesofisrael.com/the-fate-of-a-vilna-jewish-cemetery/

“Upside-Down World? Neo-Nazi March Assisted by Police on Central Boulevard, while Authorities try to Banish Baltic Pride Across the River” in Defending History, 28 March 2013.  https://defendinghistory.com/upside-down-world-neo-nazi-march-assisted-by-police-on-central-boulevard-while-authorities-try-to-banish-baltic-pride-to-shnipishok-snipiskes-across-the-river/51529

“Background Reading on the Shift in US Foreign Policy on Holocaust Denial from c. 2009” in Defending History, 1 March 2013.  https://defendinghistory.com/background-reading-on-the-shift-in-us-foreign-policy-on-holocaust-denial-from-c-2010/48135

“Purim in Lithuania? A Season for State-Approved Neo-Nazi City-Center Marches” in Algemeiner.com, 25 February 2013.  http://www.algemeiner.com/2013/02/25/purim-in-lithuania-a-season-for-state-approved-neo-nazi-city-center-marches/

“Tolerance Education? State-Sponsored Commission Uses its Website to Call Holocaust Survivor a “Liar” and to Demand ‘Apology from Jewish Community’” in Defending History, 21 February 2013.  https://defendinghistory.com/red-brown-commission-launches-new-campaign-against-holocaust-survivors-calls-vilna-ghetto-survivor-prof-pinchos-fridberg-a-liar/49791

“Hundreds of Neo-Nazis March Through the Center of Kaunas on Independence Day” in Defending History, 16 February 2013.  https://defendinghistory.com/hundreds-of-neo-nazis-march-through-the-center-of-kaunas-on-independence-day/49619

“US Researcher Christine Beresniova is Persuaded that the Problem in Lithuania is called ‘Zuroff and Katz’” in Defending History, 27 January 2013.  https://defendinghistory.com/another-american-researcher-turns-to-apologetics-for-holocaust-obfuscation-in-lithuania/48917

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The City in the Moonlight. Stories of the Old-time Lithuanian Jews. By Dovid Katz. Translated by Barnett Zumoff. Ktav Publishing: Jersey City 2012, 138 pp.  More details here.

Ostjűdische Geschichten aus dem alten Litauen. Von Dovid Katz. Übersetzung von Melitta Depner. Salon Literaturverlag: Munich 2012, 329 pp. More details here.

Litvish: An Atlas of Northeastern Yiddish. A Work in Progress.  http://www.dovidkatz.net/WebAtlas/AtlasSamples.htm

The Language of Litvak Gravestones: A Cultural Dictionary. A Work in Progress.  https://defendinghistory.com/the-language-of-litvak-gravestones-a-dictionary-by-dovid-katz

“Wird Deutschland jetzt der selbsternannte Vorkämpfer der Holocaust-Verschleierung?” in Clemens Heni and Thomas Weidauer (eds.), Ein Super-GAUck. Politische Kultur im neuen Deutschland, Edition Critic: Berlin 2012, pp.101-105.

Review of Adam Michnik, In Search of Lost Meaning: The New Eastern Europe, in East European Jewish Affairs, 42.2, pp. 187-191.  https://defendinghistory.com/wp-content/uploads/2012/09/Review-of-Michnik-Dovid-Katz-in-EEJA.pdf

“You Cannot Praise Fascists and be Pro Human Rights” in the London Jewish News, 13 December 2012. Reprint in The Algemeiner.  https://defendinghistory.com/wp-content/uploads/2012/12/Dovid-Katz-op-ed-in-London-Jewish-News-13-Dec-2012.pdf

“Prank Email that Tries to Derail Litvak Community is Exposed: But is Chanukah Supposed to be April Fools?” in Defending History, 11 December 2012.  https://defendinghistory.com/?p=47040

“An Open Letter to Ed Hirsch” in Defending History, 6 December 2012.  https://defendinghistory.com/an-open-letter-to-ed-hirsch/46693

Translator [from Hebrew] and editor, Yitzhak Arad, “The Holocaust in Lithuania, and its Obfuscation, in Lithuanian Sources” in Defending History, 1 December 2012.  https://defendinghistory.com/yitzhak-arad-on-the-holocaust-in-lithuania-and-its-obfuscation-in-lithuanian-sources/46252

“Efraim Zuroff, History’s Lonely Defender” in The Times of Israel, 15 November 2012.  http://blogs.timesofisrael.com/efraim-zuroff-historys-lonely-sentinel/

“Kristallnacht Becomes PR Hook for Double Genociders at Berlin Events of the ‘Prague Process Platform’” in Defending History, 9 November 2012.  https://defendinghistory.com/kristallnacht-becomes-pr-hook-for-double-genociders-at-berlin-events-of-the-prague-process-platform/45421

“Jewish Center in Ukraine Apparently Duped into Honoring a Nazi Collaborationist Organization” in Defending History, 1 November 2012.  https://defendinghistory.com/jewish-center-in-ukraine-apparently-duped-into-honoring-a-nazi-collaborationist-organization/44886

“Canadian Prime Minister Praises Holocaust-Distorting Museum in Ukraine” in Defending History, 22 October 2012.  https://defendinghistory.com/canadian-prime-minister-praises-holocaust-distorting-museum-in-ukraine/44332

“Tel Aviv’s Leivick House Releases 2009 Video of Ambassador Chen Ivri Apter” in Defending History, 21 October 2012. https://defendinghistory.com/tel-avivs-leivick-house-releases-2009-video-of-ambassador-chen-ivri-apter/44176

“Lithuanian President’s Decree on ‘Red-Brown Commission’ is Re-issued with ‘New Sentence’” in Defending History, 17 October 2012. https://defendinghistory.com/presidential-decree-on-red-brown-commission-is-changed-by-one-line-praised-by-us-embassy-in-newest-bad-to-cover-main-goals/44101

“Israel Chronicle” [of Lithuanian-related Holocaust issues] in DefendingHistory.com, 7 October 2012. https://defendinghistory.com/israel-debates/43340

“Samples of the Work of a Holocaust-Twisting, Antisemitic, Homophobic Envelope Maker” in DefendingHistory.com, 6 October 2012.  https://defendinghistory.com/samples-of-the-work-of-anabic-envelope-designer/43253

“Yad Vashem Sinking Deeper in Lithuanian ‘Commission’ Morass with Political Campaign for Compensation from Russia” in DefendingHistory.com, 26 September 2012.  https://defendinghistory.com/yad-vashem-sinking-deeper-in-lithuanian-red-brown-commission-morass-with-political-campaign-for-compensation-from-russia/42302

“Holocaust Commemoration Vilnius Style, with an Israeli Twist: Menachem Begin and the Jail House Rock” in DefendingHistory.com, 24 September 2012.  https://defendinghistory.com/41954/41954

“June 2009 Correspondence with Yad Vashem” in DefendingHistory.com, 3 September 2012.  https://defendinghistory.com/june-2009-correspondence-with-yad-vashem/40734

“Yad Vashem Shocks Holocaust Survivors by Rejoining Lithuanian Government’s ‘Red-Brown Commission’” in DefendingHistory.com, 28 August 2012. https://defendinghistory.com/president-of-lithuania-takes-nation-deeper-into-red-brown-morass/40407

“Executive Director of ‘Red-Brown Commission’ Doubts Lithuanian Jews were Killed ‘on a racial basis’ before Arrival of German Forces in 1941” in DefendingHistory.com, 16 August 2012. https://defendinghistory.com/executive-director-of-red-brown-commission-questions-whether-lithuanian-jews-were-killed-on-a-racial-basis-before-arrival-of-german-forces/39766

“Shoah Denial is being Replaced by an Illusive and Delusive Evil” in London Jewish News, 3 August 2012. https://defendinghistory.com/wp-content/uploads/2012/08/Dovid-Katz-in-London-Jewish-News-3-August2012.pdf

Yiddish translation of the Seventy Years Declaration in DefendingHistory.com [posted 3 August 2012].  https://defendinghistory.com/the-seventy-years-declaration-yiddish-text; https://defendinghistory.com/wp-content/uploads/2012/08/SYD-in-Yiddish-PDF-from-webpage-on-4-Aug-2012.pdf

“Lithuanian Foreign Minister Includes ‘Historical Memory Policy’ (= Double Genocide) among Nation’s Prime Goals” in DefendingHistory.com, 2 August 2012. Republished in Operation Last Chance.  https://defendinghistory.com/lithuanian-foreign-minister-includes-historical-memory-policy-double-genocide-among-nations-prime-goals/39153;  http://www.operationlastchance.org/LITHUANIA_35-152.htm

“Pursuing Perpetrators, Preserving History, and Educating the Next Generation: A Review of Efraim Zuroff’s Operation Last Chance” in Prism (Yeshiva University), vol. 4 (Spring 2012), pp. 136-138.

“Respectable Memoir, Some Shrewd Manipulation by an East European Government ― or Both?” [review of Ellen Cassedy’s We are Here] in the Algemeiner Journal, 18 July 2012.  http://www.algemeiner.com/2012/07/18/respectable-memoir-some-shrewd-manipulation-by-an-east-european-government-%E2%80%95-or-both/

“Lithuanian Foreign Ministry Planning to (Ab)use EU Presidency to Push Red-Brown Politics” in DefendingHistory.com, 17 July 2012. https://defendinghistory.com/lithuanian-foreign-ministry-planning-to-abuse-eu-presidency-to-push-red-brown-politics/38227

“Landsbergis. Then and Now.” in DefendingHistory.com, 16 July 2012.  https://defendinghistory.com/landsbergis-then-and-now/38144

“Trilingual Memorial Plaque Unveiled on Zhager Town Square” in DefendingHistory.com, 13 July 2012.  https://defendinghistory.com/trilingual-memorial-plaque-unveiled-on-zhagers-town-square/37963

“Reply to the Economist on Lithuania’s Recent Reburial of the 194 Nazi Puppet “Prime Minister” in DefendingHistory.com, 15 June 2012. Also posted in Comments to the Economist online article by E[dward] L[ucas]. https://defendinghistory.com/reply-to-the-economist-on-lithuanias-recent-reburial-of-the-1941-nazi-puppet-prime-minister/37091; https://www.economist.com/user/4407709/comments

“Congratulating Algimantas Kasparavičius who Gets it Right: Trying to Manage History is a Big-Time Loser for Mature Foreign Policy” in DefendingHistory.com, 30 May 2012. https://defendinghistory.com/congratulating-kasparavicius-manipulating-history-is-a-big-time-loser-for-mature-foreign-policy/36579

“VMU in Kaunas Sinking Further into Ambrazevičius-Brazaitis Morass, as Historians Join Glorifiers for Yet Another Event” in DefendingHistory.com, 23 May 2012.  https://defendinghistory.com/vmu-sinking-further-into-ambrazevicius-morass-as-historians-join-glorifiers-yet-another-event/36133

“An Open Letter to Yale History Professor Timothy Snyder” in Algemeiner Journal, 21 May 2012 [in print edition: 25 May, pp. 2, 4,5].  http://www.algemeiner.com/2012/05/21/an-open-letter-to-yale-history-professor-timothy-snyder/

“Lithuanian Newspaper Accuses Kaunas Rector of Misleading Parliament about Whether He Knew in Advance of VMU’s Planned Conference To Honor Wartime Nazi Puppet Prime Minister” in DefendingHistory.com, 21 May 2012.  https://defendinghistory.com/lietuvos-zinios-reporter-says-vmu-rector-lied-to-parliament-when-he-claimed-he-was-not-informed-of-abmrazevicius-braziaits-conference/35848

“Tim Snyder, in Vilnius, Comments Publicly on the Reburial and Glorification of 1941 Nazi Puppet Prime Minister” in DefendingHistory.com, 19 May 2012. https://defendinghistory.com/tim-snyder-in-vilnius-comments-publicly-on-the-reburial-and-glorification-of-nazi-puppet-prime-minister/35783

“Lithuania’s Prime Minister and Culture Minister Personally Signed off on €8,700 (US $11,000) Expenditure to Honor Wartime Fascist Leader” in DefendingHistory.com, 18 May 2012.  https://defendinghistory.com/lithuanias-prime-minister-and-culture-minister-personally-signed-off-on-8700-euro-expenditure-to-honor-wartime-fascist-leader/35620

“Want to Honor the Head of the 1941 Nazi Puppet Government? Website Claims Seimas Will Provide Free Transportation” in DefendingHistory.com, 17 May 2012.  https://defendinghistory.com/want-to-honor-the-head-of-the-1941-nazi-puppet-government-website-claims-seimas-will-provide-free-transportation/35459

“Parliament’s Public Relations Department Posts Revised Schedule of Events to Honor Nazi Collaborator ‘Prime Minister’ Juozas Ambrazevičius (Brazaitis)” in DefendingHistory.com, 16 May 2012.  https://defendinghistory.com/parliaments-public-relations-department-posts-revised-schedule-of-events-to-honor-nazi-collaborator-prime-ministerjuozas-ambrazevicius-brazaitis/35351

“BNS Report Follows Dramatic Donskis Statement; Says Event does not have VMU ‘Sanction’” in DefendingHistory.com, 15 May 2012.  https://defendinghistory.com/bns-report-follows-dramatic-donskis-statement-says-event-does-not-have-vmu-sanction/35303

“MEP Donskis Condemns Events to Honor Holocaust Collaborator Ambrazevičius” in DefendingHistory.com, 15 May 2012.  https://defendinghistory.com/mep-donskis-issues-statement/35224

“Archbishop Adds his Blessing to the Nazi Collaborator being Reburied with Full Honors” in DefendingHistory.com, 11 May 2012. https://defendinghistory.com/archbishop-adds-his-blessing-to-the-nazi-collaborator-being-reburied-with-full-honors/35204

“Day of Shame (May 19th) Can Still be Averted at Vytautas Magnus University in Kaunas” in DefendingHistory.com, 11 May 2012.  https://defendinghistory.com/will-the-19th-of-may-2012-by-a-day-of-shame-for-vytautas-magnus-university-vytauto-didziojo-universitetas-in-kaunas/34912

“‘Prime Minister’ of Lithuania’s 1941 Nazi Puppet Government to be Glorified, Re-interred and Subject of a Commemorative Conference at Vytautas Magnus University” in DefendingHistory.com, 3 May 2012.  https://defendinghistory.com/prime-minister-of-lithuanias-1941-nazi-puppet-government-to-be-glorified-reinterred-and-subject-of-new-politico-academic-conference-at-vytautas-magnus-university/34514

“‘Moderate Litvak’ Status is Conferred by his Highness, the Norwegian Property Magnate cum Editor-in-Chief of Vilnius” in DefendingHistory.com, 1 May 2012.  https://defendinghistory.com/moderate-litvak-status-is-conferred-by-his-highness-the-norwegian-property-magnate-cum-editor-in-chief-of-vilnius/34416

“Rabinowitz-Dorf PR Campaign for Lithuanian Embassy and ‘Fake Litvaks’ Backfires Bigtime” in DefendingHistory.com, 30 April 2012. https://defendinghistory.com/rabinowitzdorf-communications-campaign-for-lithuanian-embassy-is-backfiring/34207

“Neo-Nazi Youth Organization is Admitted into National “Lithuanian Council of Youth Organizations” (a recipient of European Union “Structural Funds”) in DefendingHistory.com, 30 April 2012.  https://defendinghistory.com/neo-nazi-youth-organization-is-admitted-into-national-lithuanian-council-of-youth-organizations/34364

“Baltic ‘Double Genocide’ Discourse Slips into Naive American Jewish Articles on Lithuania” in DefendingHistory.com, 24 April 2012. https://defendinghistory.com/baltic-double-genocide-discourse-slips-into-naive-american-jewish-articles-on-lithuania/34064

“Lithuanian Government Calls for ‘ Bigger Investments from Litvaks’ as South Africa’s Glasenberg is Targeted’ in DefendingHistory.com, 20 April 2012.  https://defendinghistory.com/lithuanian-government-calls-for-bigger-investments-from-litvaks/33929

“Jesus in Yiddish” (Last Words column) in Jewish Renaissance (London), 7, 3 April 2012, p. 52. https://www.facebook.com/photo.php?fbid=376762629021622&set=a.101262873238267.2821.100000636637491&type=1&theater

“Lithuania’s Embassy in Washington Recruiting ‘Useful Academics’ for Discredited ‘Red-Brown’ Commission” in DefendingHistory.com, 24 March 2012.  https://defendinghistory.com/lithuanias-embassy-in-washington-recruiting-for-discredited-red-brown-commission/32949

“1500 Honor the Waffen SS at Riga’s Liberty Monument; Event is Praised by Latvia’s President, Condemned by Council of Europe’s Commission on Racism” in DefendingHistory.com, 16 March 2012.  https://defendinghistory.com/1500-honor-the-waffen-ss-at-rigas-liberty-monumuent-event-is-praised-by-latvias-president-condemned-by-the-european-commission/32654

European Commission website: “Martin Schulz, EP President, meeting with Dovid Katz ― Handing over the [70 Years] Declaration on the Final Solution of the Wannsee Conference”, 14 March 2012.  http://ec.europa.eu/avservices/services/showShotlist.do?filmRef=82876&out=HTML&lg=en&src=1

“Over 1000 neo-Nazis Fill Main Vilnius Boulevard on Lithuanian Independence Day” in DefendinHistory.com, 11 March 2012. https://defendinghistory.com/over-1000-neo-nazis-fill-main-vilnius-boulevard-on-lithuanian-independence-day/32439

“March 11th: A Grand Opportunity for the Lithuanian Human Rights Community ― and the People of Vilnius” in DefendingHistory.com, 4 March 2012. https://defendinghistory.com/march-11th-a-grand-opportunity-for-the-lithuanian-human-rights-community/31908

“Zingeris Statement on Planned Match 11th neo-Nazi march fails to mention ― the neo-Nazi March” in DefendingHistory.com, 28 February 2012.  https://defendinghistory.com/zingeris-issues-statement-on-planned-march-11th-neo-nazi-march-that-fails-to-mention-the-neo-nazi-march/31766

“Council of Europe’s Commission Against Racism and Intolerance Condemns Latvia’s Waffen SS Parades and Celebration of Hitler’s 1941 Invasion” in DefendingHistory.com, 21 February 2012. https://defendinghistory.com/european-commission-condemns-latvias-waffen-ss-parades/31490

“300 Neo-Nazis March through the Center of Kaunas on Lithuanian Independence Day; They are Addressed by Members of Parliament” in DefendingHistory.com, 16 February 2011.  https://defendinghistory.com/european-commission-condemns-latvias-waffen-ss-parades/31490.

“Holocaust Survivors to Demonstrate outside Tel Aviv “Sellout Gala” Slated for March 5th” in DefendingHistory.com, 14 February 2012.  https://defendinghistory.com/holocaust-survivors-and-litvak-jewry-betrayed-again-as-lithuania-foreign-minister-slated-to-be-guest-of-honor-at-tel-aviv-gala/30933

“The Hidden Monument of Vilnius” in DefendingHistory.com, 12 February 2012.  https://defendinghistory.com/the-hidden-monument-of-vilnius/30677

“The Seventy Years Declaration and the Simple Truth” in Algemeiner Journal, 3 February 2012. http://www.algemeiner.com/2012/02/03/the-seventy-years-declaration-and-the-simple-truth/

“A Fight over History’s Tragic Truth” in the Jewish Chronicle, 2 [3] February 2012. http://www.thejc.com/comment-and-debate/analysis/62984/a-fight-over-historys-tragic-truth; PDF at: https://defendinghistory.com/wp-content/uploads/2012/02/Jewish-Chronicle-3-February-2012-2-items.pdf

“The Seventy Years Declaration” [coauthored with Danny Ben-Moshe] in DefendingHistory.com, 20 January 2012.  https://defendinghistory.com/70-years-declaration/29230; media coverage at: https://defendinghistory.com/media-coverage-of-the-seventy-years-declaration-2012.

“Free Speech Reaffirmed by Vilnius Judge in Algirdas Paleckis Case” in DefendingHistory.com, 18 January 2012.  https://defendinghistory.com/free-speech-reaffirmed-by-vilnius-judge-in-algirdas-paleckis-case/29100

“Mainstream Daily ‘Lietuvos rytas’: A New High-End Home for Antisemitism in Lithuania?” in DefendingHistory.com, 16 January 2012.  https://defendinghistory.com/letuvos-rytas-rapidly-pulled-an-antisemitic-article-and-days-later-published-a-holocaust-deniers-work-on-hitlers-main-kampf/28935

“A Reconstructed Shtetl ― Minus its Jewish Component” in DefendingHistory.com, 2 January 2012. https://defendinghistory.com/a-reconstructed-shtetl-minus-its-jewish-component/27800

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“The Atlas of Northeastern Yiddish: On the Status of Maps in Linguistic Research” by Giedrė Beconytė and Dovid Katz in Geodesy and Cartography, 37(3), 2011: 119-124. https://defendinghistory.com/wp-content/uploads/2011/12/Beconyte-Katz-2011.pdf

“Detonation of the Holocaust in 1941: A Tale of Two Books” [review of Timothy Snyder’s Bloodlands and Alexander PrusinThe Lands Between] by Dovid Katz in Journal of East European Jewish Affairs, vol. 41, no. 3, December 2011, pp. 207-221.  https://defendinghistory.com/wp-content/uploads/2011/12/Dovid-Katzs-review-of-Bloodlands-in-EEJA-Dec-2011.pdf

“Popular Daily has Full Front-Page Spread on ‘The Jews’” in DefendingHistory.com, 22 December 2011.https://defendinghistory.com/popular-daily-has-full-front-page-spread-on-the-jews/27340

“Lithuanian Ministry of Defense Honors ‘Lithuanian Activist Front’ (LAF) Nazi Collaborators” in DefendingHistory.com, 19 December 2011. https://defendinghistory.com/lithuanian-ministry-of-defense-honors-lithuanian-activist-front-laf-nazi-collaborators-no-mention-of-participation-in-onset-of-the-lithuanian-holocaust/27114

“Mainstream Lithuanian News Portal, Delfi.lt, Again Publishes Antisemitic ‘Ethnographic History’” in DefendingHistory.com, 19 December 2011.  https://defendinghistory.com/27139/27139

“‘Double Genocide’ Permeates Local Antisemitic Discourse in Report on Efraim Zuroff’s Operation Last Chance II in Berlin” in DefendingHistory.com, 16 December 2011.  https://defendinghistory.com/double-genocide-permeates-local-antisemitic-discourse-in-report-on-efraim-zuroffs-operation-last-chance-ii-in-berlin/27390

“Old Stones Speak to Young Pupils: Jewish Gravestones in a Vilnius School Yard. Photos by Richard Schofield” in DefendingHistory.com, 12 December 2011.  https://defendinghistory.com/when-old-stones-speak-to-middle-school-pupils-jewish-gravestones-in-a-vilnius-school-yard/26651

“Manipulation?” [Letter to the Editor] in the Jerusalem Post, 28 November 2011. https://defendinghistory.com/wp-content/uploads/2011/11/Dovid-Katz-letter-in-Jerusalem-Post-28-Nov-2011.pdf

“Hannah Rosenthal does it again” in the Algemeiner Journal, 25 November 2011.  http://www.algemeiner.com/2011/11/25/hannah-rosenthal-does-it-again

“Open debate, open society, and secret societies” on DefendingHistory.com, 9 November 2011. https://defendinghistory.com/open-debate-open-society-and-secret-societies/25240

“UNESCO vote reveals Lithuanian duplicity” in the Jerusalem Post, 3 November 2011. https://defendinghistory.com/wp-content/uploads/2011/11/Dovid-Katzs-oped-in-the-Jerusalem-Post-3-November-2011.pdf

“Understanding ‘Double Genocide’: a lethal new threat to Holocaust memory and honesty” in Centre News [Jewish Holocaust Centre, Melbourne, Australia], October 2011 [date on print edition: September 2011]. https://defendinghistory.com/wp-content/uploads/2011/10/Dovid-Katz-in-JHC.pdf

“Seven solutions for rapid and constructive transformation of Lithuanian-Jewish relations” on DefendingHistory.com, October 2011. https://defendinghistory.com/7-solutions

“Hungarian National Day Celebration in Vilnius Celebrates Lithuanian ‘Forest Brother’; Two Local Fascists Invited” on DefendingHistory.com, 24 October 2011.  https://defendinghistory.com/hungarian-national-day-celebration-in-vilnius-celebrates-lithuanian-forest-brothers/25081

“Head of History Institute, speaking at ‘Bloodlands’ event at the Lithuanian Foreign Ministry, excoriates Holocaust survivors who joined the anti-Nazi partisans” on DefendingHistory.com, 30 September 2011. https://defendinghistory.com/vilnius-historians-at-book-launch-for-lithuanian-edition-of-bloodlands-attack-holocaust-survivors-who-joined-the-resistance-try-to-equalize-nazi-and-soviet-collaboration/24072

“Lithuanian foreign minister inserts red-brown discourse into Austrian extradition case” on DefendingHistory.com, 28 September 2011. https://defendinghistory.com/lithuanian-foreign-minister-inserts-red-brown-discourse-into-austrian-extradition-case/23861

“Lithuanian foreign ministry’s two versions: for a Jewish audience (not for publication) and for ‘General’ (proudly on website” on DefendingHistory.com, 28 September 2011. https://defendinghistory.com/new-confusion-over-lithuanian-foreign-ministry-versions-for-jews-and-general/23912

“Lithuanian foreign ministry gloats, as Yivo’s position continues to confuse” on DefendingHistory.com, 23 September 2011. https://defendinghistory.com/confusion-over-yivos-decision-on-surrendering-vilnius-treasures-shortly-to-a-government-yivo-room/23242

“Yad Vashem withdraws invitation to Lithuanian minister over campaign against Joe Melamed; British parliamentarians move an ‘early day motion’; Melamed speaks eloquently at Yad Vashem, blasts efforts to glorify Holocaust perpetrators as ‘heroes’” on DefendingHistory.com, 22 September 2011. https://defendinghistory.com/yad-vashem-withdraws-invitation-to-lithuanian-minister-over-campaign-against-joe-melamed-british-parliamentarians-move-an-early-day-motion/23380

“Yivo director sends new circular to staff, refining Lithuanian government talking points; claims support of Veidlinger and Zipperstein for (inaccurate) public statement” on DefendingHistory.com, 13 September 2011.  https://defendinghistory.com/director-of-yivo-sends-new-circular-to-staff-citing-support-of-veidlinger-and-zipperstein/22170

“Director of Yivo sends circular to staff, taking on the role of Manhattan office of Lithuanian government’s PR department; calls Holocaust survivors ‘helpless’ and ‘ageing’” on DefendingHistory.com, 9 September 2011.  https://defendinghistory.com/director-of-yivo-circulates-document-to-entire-staff-taking-on-the-role-of-pr-department-for-the-lithuanian-government/22157

“Holocaust survivors from Lithuania protest Yivo’s decision to honor the foreign minister of Lithuania at Vilna Ghetto Commemoration” on DefendingHistory.com, 6 September 2011.  https://defendinghistory.com/holocaust-survivors-from-lithuania-protest-yivos-decision-to-honor-the-foreign-minister-of-lithuania-at-vilna-ghetto-commemoration/21555

“Lithuanian authorities initiated prosecution against another Holocaust survivor” on DefendingHistory.com, 30 August 2011.  https://defendinghistory.com/lithuanian-authorities-initiate-prosecution-against-another-holocaust-survivor/21693

“Et tu, Yivo? Holocaust survivors jolted by plan for Lithuanian foreign minister to be ‘guest of honor’ at Vilna Ghetto commemoration” on DefendingHistory.com, 28 August 2011.  https://defendinghistory.com/et-tu-yivo-2011-holocaust-survivor-community-is-jolted-by-yivo-plan-to-honor-the-lithuanian-foreign-minister-on-22-september/21195

“A scholar’s apt warning on ultranationalist abuse of history and historians” on DefendingHistory.com, 28 August 2011.  https://defendinghistory.com/a-scholar%e2%80%99s-apt-warning-on-ultranationalist-abuse-of-history-and-historians/21262

“Mainstream Sajudis organization joins call for increased commemoration of local 1941 Holocaust perpetrators” on DefendingHistory.com, 27 August 2011.  https://defendinghistory.com/mainstream-sajudis-organization-joins-call-for-increased-glorification-of-local-1941-holocaust-perpetrators/21373

“Far right organization, led by Genocide Center’s ‘specialist’, publishes a list of enemies including advisor to the Lithuanian Jewish community” on DefendingHistory.com, 29 July 2011.  https://defendinghistory.com/far-right-organization-led-by-genocide-centers-specialist-publishes-a-list-of-enemies-including-advisor-to-the-lithuanian-jewish-community/20706

 “A Speech Never Spoken at Plungyán (Plungė)” on DefendingHistory.com, 20 July 2011. https://defendinghistory.com/a-speech-never-spoken/19705

“The Denial that is Part of Holocaust Obfuscation: Second Day of the Lithuanian Parliament’s Conference” on DefendingHistory.com, 30 June 2011. https://defendinghistory.com/the-denial-that-is-part-of-holocaust-obfuscation-second-day-of-the-lithuanian-parliament%E2%80%99s-conference/18494

“In Delirium of Obfuscation: First Day of the Lithuanian Parliament’s Conference on the 70th Anniversary of Hitler’s Attack on the USSR” on DefendingHistory.com, 29 June 2011. https://defendinghistory.com/first-day-of-lithuanian-parliament-conference-is-a-delirium-of-obfuscation/18423

“Three Years Later: Neither Charged nor Cleared” on DefendingHistory.com, 5 May 2011. https://defendinghistory.com/?p=416

“This Year’s Yom Hashoah is Different” in Winnipeg Jewish Review. http://www.winnipegjewishreview.com/article_detail.cfm?id=1098&sec=1&title=EDITOR%27S_PICK%3A_THIS_YEAR%27S_YOM_HASHOAH_IS_DIFFERENT

Amy Shannon Liedy’s summary of Dovid Katz’s Kennan Institute (Woodrow Wilson Center) lecture in Washington DC, posted 25 April 2011.  http://wilsoncenter.org/index.cfmtopic_id=1424&fuseaction=topics.event_summary&event_id=650799

“Freedom of Speech is Not ‘Pick and Choose’: On The Paleckis Trial in Vilnius” on DefendingHistory.com, 14 April 2011. https://defendinghistory.com/on-the-paleckis-trial-in-vilnius/14504

“Has the Forward Association abandoned Elementary Ethics?” on DefendingHistory.com, 3 April 2011. https://defendinghistory.com/has-the-forward-association-abandoned-elementary-ethics/14342

“Right of Reply: Condemnation of Communism Does Not Require Submission to Double Genocide, Holocaust Obfuscation, or the Recent Deterioration in Civil Society and Free Speech in Lithuania” in Lithuanian Foreign Policy Review, 7 March 2011. http://www.lfpr.lt/uploads/File/2010-24/Katz.doc;  https://defendinghistory.com/13705/13705

“Lithuanian Jews, Holocaust Survivors, Specialists who Disagree with Lithuanian Government ― Shut Out of London Conference” on DefendingHistory.com, 1 February 2011. https://defendinghistory.com/lithuanian-foreign-ministry-gives-for-london-colloquium-on-the-holocaust/8538

“When a ‘Human Rights Association’ Accepts and Repeats the Antisemitic Canards in Town” on DefendingHistory.com, 3 January 2011. https://defendinghistory.com/reply-to-lhra-report/8860

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“Why is the U.S. Silent on ‘Double Genocide’? While European countries have condemned the New Holocaust Revisionism in the Baltics, America shows no moral leadership” in the Guardian, 21 December 2010. http://www.guardian.co.uk/commentisfree/cifamerica/2010/dec/21/double-genocide-baltic-us-europe

“An Open Letter to the Prime Minister of Lithuania on the eve of his Visit to Israel” on Alfa.lt, 15 December 2010. http://www.alfa.lt/straipsnis/10430134/?Open.letter.to.PM.on.eve.of.visit.to.Israel=2010-12-15_13-04

“Conference Call. The Lithuanian Sponsors of a Holocaust Education Program have a Dark History of their own” in Tablet Magazine, 3 December 2010. http://www.tabletmag.com/news-and-politics/52058/conference-call/

“The Real Friend is the One who tells you when Something is Wrong” on Alfa.lt, 17 November 2010. http://www.alfa.lt/straipsnis/10423927/?Opinion..The.Real.Friend.is.the.one.who.tells.you.when.something.is.wrong.=2010-11-17_12-02

Review of David G. Roskies, Yiddishlands: A Memoir in East European Jewish Affairs (EEJA) vol. 40, no. 3. https://defendinghistory.com/wp-content/uploads/2010/12/2010-Dec-DovidKatzReviewofRoskiesYiddishlands.pdf

[Reply to Barry Rubin] in the Letters to the Editor section of the Israel Journal of Foreign Affairs, IV:3, 2010, pp 189-193. https://defendinghistory.com/wp-content/uploads/2010/10/2010IsraelJournalofForeignAffairsDovidKatz.pdf

“Why Red is Not Brown in the Baltics. Unhappily, Timothy Snyder’s historical reassessment of the Nazi-Soviet pact coincides with Baltic ultranationalist agendas” in The Guardian [Comment is Free, Cif America], 30 September 2010.  http://www.guardian.co.uk/commentisfree/cifamerica/2010/sep/30/baltic-nazi-soviet-snyder

קאַפּיטעלעך אידיש 10: „גוים וואָס פאַרנעמען זיך מיט אידיש“: צי האָבן זיי וועלכע ניט איז ברייטערע התחייבותן לגבי אידישע פראַגן? אין „אַלגעמיינעם זשורנאַל“, 22טן סעפּטעמבער 2010, זז. זז. 1, 3, 6.

[“Chapters in Yiddish 10: Gentiles who become immersed in Yiddish: Do they have a moral responsibility regarding Jewish issues?” in Algemeyner Zhurnal, 22 September 2010, pp. 3, 6.] https://defendinghistory.com/wp content/uploads/2010/10/2010Sept22KapitalakhYidish10.pdf

“Letter to the Editor” in The Baltic Times, 29 September 2010. http://www.baltictimes.com/news/articles/27076/  PDF of the 30 Sept print version: https://defendinghistory.com/wp-content/uploads/2010/10/2010Sept30BalticTimesDKLetterPrint.pdf

“Time to Free Europe of this Poison” on Parliamentary Committee Against Antisemitism Foundation, 1 September 2010.  http://www.antisemitism.org.uk/time-to-free-europe-of-this-poison

Lithuanian Jewish Culture, Baltos Lankos: Vilnius 2010, 400 pp. folio. Second revised and updated edition. In cooperation with Central European University. To order: http://www.eksportas-importas.lt/en/mess/9.More details: http://www.dovidkatz.net/i_2ljc.htm

“Human rights — and Holocaust Obfuscation ― in the Baltic states (Response to Clifford J. Levy’s NY Times report)”, 16 August 2010, on HITB. https://defendinghistory.com/response-to-clifford-j-levy/2329

“Talking of Love in Yiddish” in Jewish Renaissance (London, vol. 9.4, p. 56). http://www.dovidkatz.net/dovid/PDFLinguistics/2010_Love_%20in_Yiddish.pdf

קאַפּיטעלעך אידיש 9: (א) וועגן אי⸗מייל כנגד „בליצפּאָסט“; מאָבילנער טעלעפאָן כנגד „צעלקע“; לעפּטאָפּ כנגד „שויס⸗קאָמפּיוטער“ א.א.; (ב) דער אַנדערשדיקער גורל פון דער אידישער און דער העברעאישער ליטעראַטור בנוגע איבערזעצונגען אין אַנדערע שפּראַכן די לעצטע יאָרן; (ג) וועגן „מרת“. אין „אַלגעמיינעם זשורנאַל“, 11טן יוני 2010, ז. 3.

[“Chapters in Yiddish 9: (a) On internationalisms vs. neologisms for the vocabulary of modern technology; (b) The differing fate of Yiddish and modern Hebrew literature in international translations in recent decades; (c) Moras as feminine of Reb” in Algemeyner Zhurnal, 11 June 2010, p. 3]  https://holocaustinthebaltics.com/2010June11Kapitalakh9.pdf;  http://www.algemeiner.com/generic.asp?id=

“Contra Prague ’08: Declaration on Unequal and Unequatable Phenomena. A draft text for open discussion” on Holocaust in the Baltics.  https://holocaustinthebaltics.com/440634.html

אַ שדים⸗טאַנץ מיט סוואַסטיקאַס אין דער היינטיקער ליטע. אַ געריכט גיט איר אורטייל, אַז סוואַסטיקאַס זיינען „די היסטאָרישע ירושה פון ליטע און ניט קיין סימבאָלן פון נאַצישן דייטשלאַנד“. אין „אַלגעמיינעם זשורנאַל“, 28טן מאַי 2010, זז. 1, 3.

[“A devil’s dance of swastikas: the decision of a Lithuanian court that swastikas are ‘the historical heritage of Lithuania and not symbols of Nazi Germany’” in Algemeyner Zhurnal, 28 May 2010, pp. 1, 3]  https://holocaustinthebaltics.com/2010May28AlgemeynerZhurnalDKonSwastikas.pdf;  http://www.algemeiner.com/generic.asp?id=6528

“It is time for Cameron to Reject the EU Nutters” in the Jewish Chronicle (London), 27 May 2010. http://www.thejc.com/comment-and-debate/comment/32181/it-time-cameron-reject-eu-nutters

“The Crime of Surviving” in Tablet Magazine, 3 May 2010. http://www.tabletmag.com/news-and-politics/32432/the-crime-of-surviving/print/

קאַפּיטעלעך אידיש 8: (א) וועגן דעם „ליטווישן עי אין קיעווער געגנט“; (ב) סטליסטיק פון „איטלעכער“ און „יעטווידער“; (ג) סעמאַנטיק פון „געדאַנקען“, „מחשבות“, „רעיונות“ און „אידייען“; (ד) די שרייבונג פון „ניו יאָרק“ און „נואַרק“ אין כתובות און גיטין. אין „אַלגעמיינעם זשורנאַל“, 23טן אַפּריל 2010, ז. 3.

[“Chapters in Yiddish 8: (a) On the ‘Lithuanian ey’ in the Kiev region; (b) Stylistics of ítlekher and yétvider; (c) semantics of gedánken, makhshóves, rayóynes and idéyen; (d) the spellings of ‘New York’ vs ‘Newark’ in contemporary marriage contracts and divorce writs” in Algemeyner Zhurnal, 23 April 2010, p. 3]; https://holocaustinthebaltics.com/2010April23Kapitalakh8.pdfhttp://www.algemeiner.com/generic.asp?id=6405

Text restoration and typography of the text for section 1 of Moyshe Kulbak’s poem Vilne. In: Vilnius: Portrait of A City. Anthology of Photographs and Text, R. Paknys Publishing House: Vilnius 2010, p. 25.

צוויי מאַרשן אין אַ נאַצישן גייסט: אין צענטער פון ווילנע, און אין צענטער פון ריגע. ביידע זיינען לעגאַל סאַנקציאָנירט געוואָרן דורך דער לאָקאַלער מאַכט; ביידע ווערן אינגאַנצן איגנאָרירט דורך דער מערבדיקע וועלט. אין „אַלגעמיינעם זשורנאַל“, 26טן מערץ 2010, זז. 1, 3.

[“Two marches in a Nazi spirit: in the city centers of Vilnius and Riga. Both sanctioned by the local authorities, and wholly ignored by the West” in Algemeyner Zhurnal, 26 March 2010, pp. 1, 3]; https://holocaustinthebaltics.com/2010March26DKinAJ.pdfhttp://www.algemeiner.com/generic.asp?id=6355

“Jewish Community Shaken by Neo-Nazi March in Downtown Vilnius on Independence Day” in Algemeiner Journal [English section], 19 March 2010, p. 6.

קאַפּיטעלעך אידיש 7: (א) דער גענויער באַדייט פון ‘יסודותדיק’ אין וועלטלעכן און אין ישיבהשן אידיש; (ב) די מאָדע דרוקן אידיש מיטן פולן העברעאישן ניקוד; (ג) דער אידישער געשטאַלט פונעם נאָמען ‘אַסיאַ’. אין „אַלגעמיינעם זשורנאַל“, 19טן מערץ 2010, ז. 3.

[“Chapters in Yiddish 7: (a) Semantic nuances of yesóydesdik in secular and haredi Yiddish; (b) the printing of Yiddish with full Hebrew vocalization; (c) Yiddish rendition of the name Asya” in Algemeyner Zhurnal, 19 March 2010, p. 3] https://holocaustinthebaltics.com/2010March19Kapitalakh7.pdf;  http://www.algemeiner.com/generic.asp?id=6334

קאַפּיטעלעך אידיש 6: פּרטים פון לשון. פראַגעס פון אַ 27 יאָריקן חסיד; די גלגולים פון די צען זין פון המן הרשע אין אידישן פאָלקלאָר. אין „אַלגעמיינעם זשורנאַל“, 5טן מערץ 2010, ז. 3.

[“Chapters in Yiddish 6: (a) Questions of Yiddish stylistics from a 27 year old khosid; (b) the remaking of the ten sons of Haman in Yiddish folklore” in Algemeyner Zhurnal, 5 March 2010, p. 3]; https://holocaustinthebaltics.com/2010March5KapitalakhVI.pdfhttp://www.algemeiner.com/generic.asp?id=6291

קאַפּיטעלעך אידיש 5: דער סוד פונעם אידישן טאַטו אין תל אביב און זיין ברייטערע באַדייטונג; פאַרוואָס אידישע פרויען⸗נעמען שטאַמען אָפּ אַ סך מאָל פון אַ ניט⸗לשון⸗קודשדיקן מקור. אין „אַלגעמיינעם זשורנאַל“, 26טן פעברואַר 2010, ז. 3.

[“Chapters in Yiddish 5: (a) The secret of the Yiddish tattoo in Tel Aviv, and the wider cultural implications; (b) Why female forenames in Yiddish are more likely to be non-Semitic in origin” in Algemeyner Zhurnal, 26 February 2010, p. 3].  https://holocaustinthebaltics.com/2010Feb26KapitalakhV.pdf;  http://www.algemeiner.com/generic.asp?id=6272

קאַפּיטעלעך אידיש 4: שבתים און שבתות, און (להבדיל), שטותים און שטויות; דער „אידישער טאַטו“ אין תל אביב. אין „אַלגעמיינעם זשורנאַל“, 12טן פעברואַר 2010, ז. 3.

[“Chapters in Yiddish 4: (a) shabosim and shaboses, and (in the same breath) shtusim and shtuyot; (b) The new Yiddish Tattoo in Tel Aviv” in Algemeyner Zhurnal, 12 February 2010, p. 3]; https://holocaustinthebaltics.com/2010Feb12KapitalakhIV.pdfhttp://www.algemeiner.com/generic.asp?id=6231

קאַפּיטעלעך אידיש 3: היתכן, „די גאַס“ און… „אויפן גאַס“?; נייע ווערטער קענען אויך האָבן אַן אמתן אידישן חן; „שמענדריק“ און „שמערל“; ווי אַזוי ווינטשט מען אַנדערע צו „זייער“ נייעם יאָר? אין „אַלגעמיינעם זשורנאַל“, 22טן יאַנואַר 2010, ז. 3.

[“Chapters in Yiddish 3: (a) How could it be? di gas but afn gas? (b) New Words can sometimes acquire the authentic Yiddish spirit; (c) On shmendrik and Shmerl; (d) How to greet neighbors on their new year?” in Algemeyner Zhurnal, 22 January 2010, p. 3] https://holocaustinthebaltics.com/2010Jan22KapitalakhIII.pdf;  http://www.algemeiner.com/generic.asp?id=6163

“Halting Holocaust Obfuscation. The Baltic Ultranationalists Rewriting East European History as an Equal Nazi-Soviet ‘Double Genocide’ must be Stopped” in the Guardian, 8 January 2010. http://www.guardian.co.uk/commentisfree/2010/jan/08/holocaust-baltic-lithuania-latvia

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[Editor and publisher], Menke Katz, Land of Manna, Fairy Glen Press: Capelulo 2009, ii + 96 pp.

קאַפּיטעלעך אידיש 2: פון וואַנעט שטאַמט ‘משומד’?; בעסער אידיש אָן נקודות איידער ‘לאַטייניזירט’ מיט זיבן חנען. אין „אַלגעמיינעם זשורנאַל“, 11טן דעצעמבער 2009, ז. 6.

[“Chapters in Yiddish 2: (a) Where does the word meshúmǝd come from? (b) Better Yiddish in Yiddish letters (even without the dots) than the fanciest transcription” in Algemeyner Zhurnal, 11 December 2009, p. 6] https://holocaustinthebaltics.com/2009Dec11KapitalakhII.pdf;  http://www.algemeiner.com/generic.asp?id=6034

קאַפּיטעלעך אידיש 1: מערב אידיש און מזרח אידיש; ‘אַ גוטן טאָג’. אין „אַלגעמיינעם זשורנאַל“, 27טן נאָוועמבער 2009, ז. 6.

[“Chapters in Yiddish 1: (a) Dating the Earliest Observations on Western vs. Eastern Yiddish; (b) A gutn tog in Yiddish” in Algemeyner Zhurnal, 27 November 2009, p. 6]. https://holocaustinthebaltics.com/2009Nov27KapitalakhI.pdfhttp://www.algemeiner.com/generic.asp?id=5973

“Don’t let the Holocaust be written out of History” in the Washington Jewish Week, 30 December 2009. http://washingtonjewishweek.com/print.asp?ArticleID=12036&SectionID=31&SubSectionID=49

Dovid Katz & Clemens Heni, “The Prague Declaration is Europe’s New Antisemitic Poison” in Algemeiner Journal, 4 December 2009, p 10. Revised version on WPK, 26 November 2009.  http://clemensheni.wordpress.com/2009/11/26/the-%E2%80%9Cprague-declaration%E2%80%9D-is-europe%E2%80%99s-new-antisemitic-poison/; https://holocaustinthebaltics.com/2009Dec4KatzAndHeniOnPragueDecl.pdf

“Tories must Reject ‘Double Genocide’ proponents. Alliance with those who would Downgrade the Holocaust is a Grave Mistake” in The Jewish Chronicle, 27 November 2009 [online version: 30 November 2009].  http://www.thejc.com/comment/comment/22477/tories-must-reject-double-genocide-proponents

“Cameron must end Tories’ Far-Right Fling” in The Irish Times, 31 October 2009. http://www.irishtimes.com/newspaper/opinion/2009/1031/1224257766699.html

“Yiddish, Without the Inhibitions” [review of Michael Wex, Yiddish Language and Culture in all its Moods] in The Jewish Chronicle, 9 October 2009. Online version 8 October at: http://www.thejc.com/arts/book-reviews/20760/born-kvetch-yiddish-language-and-culture-all-its-moods

“On Three Definitions. Genocide; Holocaust Denial; Holocaust Obfuscation” in Leonidas Donskis (ed), A Litmus Test Case of Modernity. Examining Modern Sensibilities and the Public Domain in the Baltic States at the Turn of the Century [= Interdisciplinary Studies on Central and Eastern Europe 5] Peter Lang: Bern et al 2009, pp. 259-277. https://holocaustinthebaltics.com/2009SeptDovidKatz3Definitions.pdf

Seven Kingdoms of the Litvaks, International Cultural Program Center in cooperation with the Vilnius Yiddish Institute, Vilnius 2009, 61.  http://www.dovidkatz.net/dovid/Lithuania/7_KingdomsLitvaks.pdf

“The Sounds of Silence of Jewish Lithuania” [preface] in Isaac Zibuts et al (eds), Sounds of Silence. Traces of Jewish Life in Lithuania, R. Paknio leidykla: Vilnius 2009, pp. 14-17 [also: consultant to the project]. Parallel Lithuanian edition (Tylos gausmas žydų gyvenimo pėdsakai Lietuvoje) with preface (pp. 14-17) translated by Tomas Venclova. http://www.dovidkatz.net/dovid/Lithuania/2009_SOUNDS_OF_SILENCE.pdfhttp://www.dovidkatz.net/dovid/Lithuania/2009_SOUNDS_OF_SILENCE_translation.pdf

Founding editor of The Holocaust in the Baltics (website).  www.HolocaustInTheBaltics.com

The entry “Elijah ben Solomon Zalman” in Supplement to the Modern Encyclopedia of Russian, Soviet and Eurasian History, vol. 9, Academic International Press: Gulf Breeze, Florida 2009.  http://www.dovidkatz.net/dovid/Lithuania/2009_Gaon-of-Vilna.pdf

“‘Genocide Industry’ has Hidden Agenda” in The Irish Times, 30 May 2009, p. 15.  http://www.irishtimes.com/newspaper/opinion/2009/0530/1224247744866.html?via=mr

“Prague’s Declaration of Disgrace” in The Jewish Chronicle, 22 May 2009, p. 31. http://www.thejc.com/comment/comment/prague%E2%80%99s-declaration-disgrace

“Shalóm, Shólem, Shólem-aléykhem…” in Jewish Renaissance, 8.2: 56 (January 2009).

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Windows to a Lost Jewish Past: Vilna Book Stamps. Versus Aureus: Vilnius 2008, 100 pp.

“Jewish Cultural Correlates of the Grand Duchy of Lithuania” in Alfredas Bumblauskas, Šarūnas Liekis, Grigorijus Potašenko (eds), Lietuvos Didžiosios Kunigaikštijos tradicija ir paveldo “dalybos”, Vilniaus universiteto leidykla: Vilnius 2008, pp 169-204. http://www.dovidkatz.net/dovid/Lithuania/2008_JewishCulturalCorrelates.pdf

The entries “Ber Borokhov”, “Mordkhe Veynger”, “Yiddish”, in the YIVO Encyclopedia of Jews in Eastern Europe, Yale University Press: New Haven & London 2008, pp 218-219; 1967-1968; 979-987.

“Yiddish as a Diaspora Language and its Future” in M. Avrum Ehrlich (ed), Encyclopedia of the Jewish Diaspora: Origins, Experiences, and Culture, ABC-CLIO. Volume I: Themes and Phenomena, pp 193-197.

Draft maps from work in progress on Litvish: An Atlas of Northeastern Yiddish at: http://www.dovidkatz.net/WebAtlas/AtlasSamples.htm

Questionnaire for Litvish: An Atlas of Northeastern Yiddish at: http://www.dovidkatz.net/WebAtlas/atl_quest.htm

“One Bagel, Two Bagel, Three Bagel” in Jewish Renaissance, 7.2: 56 (January 2008).

„ניו⸗יאָרקער אידישער קינסטלער און פּאָעט יאָני פיין, וועלכער איז 95 יאָר אַלט, גיט אַרויס אַ נייעם באַנד פּאָעזיע“ אין „אַלגעמיינעם זשורנאַל“, 27טן פעב. 2008: 10-9.

[At 95, New York artist and poet Yoni Fain publishes a new book of Yiddish poetry]

„הונדערט יאָר טשערנאָוויץ“ אין „אַלגעמיינעם זשורנאַל“, 26טן סעפּט. 2008: 10-9.

[100th anniversary of the Chernowitz Yiddish Language Conference]

„רחל מרגלית, 86, קען ניט קומען אין איר היימשטאָט ווילנע, ווייל זי האָט געקעמפט קעגן די נאַציס“ אין „אַלגעמיינעם זשורנאַל“, 15טן אויגוסט 2008: 10-9.

[Rokhl Margolis, 86, cannot return to her hometown, Vilnius, because she was an anti-Nazi partisan]

„אַ נייע פּראַכט⸗אויסגאַבע אויף אידיש: דוב⸗בער קערלערס ירושלימער אַלמאַנאַך“ אין „אַלגעמיינעם זשורנאַל“, 8טן אויגוסט 2008: 9, 11.

[An exquisite new book in Yiddish: Dov-Ber Kerler’s Yerusholaymer almanakh]

„צום ערשטן יאָרצייט פונעם ‘אפּיקורסישן רב’ — שערווין וויין עʺה“ אין „אַלגעמיינעם זשורנאַל“, 1טן אויגוסט 2008: 10-9.

[On the first yortsayt of the “atheist rabbi” — in memory of Sherwin Wine]

„צי וועט עס די וועלט ווייטער פאַרשווייגן? די נייע, ‘קליגערע’ און געפערלעכע פאָרם פון חורבן⸗לייקענונג ווערט ערנסט באַטראַכט דורכן — אייראָפּעאישן פּאַרלאַמענט!“ אין „אַלגעמיינעם זשורנאַל“, 25טן יולי 2008: 10-9.

[Will the international community remain silent? The new ‘cleverer’ and dangerous form of Holocaust Denial gets consideration by the European Parliament!]

„דער גולם פון גלובאָק“ אין „אַלגעמיינעם זשורנאַל“, 16טן מאַי 2008: 10-9.

[The Golem of Glubok]

„דער דיבוק אין דרויע“ אין „אַלגעמיינעם זשורנאַל“, 28טן מערץ 2008: 8.

[The Dybbuk of Druya] http://www.algemeiner.com/generic.asp?id=4846

„איינשטיין פון סוויר“ אין „אַלגעמיינעם זשורנאַל“, 22טן פעברואַר 2008: 9.

[Einstein of Svir] http://www.algemeiner.com/generic.asp?id=4685

„אַ רייזע אין לאַטוויע“ אין „אַלגעמיינעם זשורנאַל“, 4טן יאַנואַר 2008: 9; 18טן יאַנואַר 2008: 9.

[A journey to Latvia] http://www.algemeiner.com/generic.asp?id=4458;  http://www.algemeiner.com/generic.asp?id=4523

„ווערטער וועגן ווערטער [1: ‘קאַטאָוועס’; 2: ‘וועגן אידיש און יידיש: אַ קאַפּיטל אידישע סימבאָלאָגיע’]“ אין „ירושלימער אַלמאַנאַך“ 28 (2008): 402 -417.

[Words on words. 1: katóvǝs; 2: On yidish and idish: a chapter of Yiddish symbology]

„צוויי דערציילונגען: דער משומד פון קלושאַן; השגחה פּרטית“ אין „ירושלימער אַלמאַנאַך“ 28 (2008): 184-166.

[Two short stories: “The Convert of Klushan” & “Divine Providence”]

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