on the Holocaust in Lithuania

See also:






Yad Vashem / by Yitzhak Arad
Yad Vashem / Shoah Resource Center
US Holocaust Memorial Museum
Association of Lithuanian Jews in Israel; II; Hebrew version
Lithuania and the Jews: the Holocaust Chapter
Solomonas Atamukas
Katy Miller-Karpi
Rachel Kostanian, director of the Green House (video)
Richard Bloom Productions, The Litvak ConnectionA documentary depicting the role of Nazi collaborators during the Shoah in liquidation of Latvian and Lithuanian Jewry. Premiered on 21 May 2009 at the Delray Beach Film Festival.


See also Recent Books

Yitzhak Arad, The Holocaust in the Soviet Union. University of Nebraska: Lincoln & Yad Vashem: Jerusalem 2009, 701 pp.  Order here.

Leib Garfunkel et al (eds), Lithuanian Jewry [Yahadut Lita]. Volume IV: The Holocaust 1941-1944 [in Hebrew]. Association of Lithuanian Jews in Israel: Tel Aviv 1984.

Masha Greenbaum, ‘The Bloodbath’ = pp 302-339 in her The Jews of Lithuania. A History of a Remarkable Community 1316-1945. Gefen Publishing House: Jerusalem & Hewlett, NY 1995. Order here.

Sheldon Hersh and Robert Wolf, The Bugs are Burning. The Role of East Europeans in the Exploitation, Subjugation and Murder of their Jewish Neighbors during the Holocaust. Devora Publishing: New York 2009.  Order here.

Berl Kagan (ed), ‘The Holocaust in Lithuania’  [Khurbn Lite, in Yiddish] = pp 1645-1840 of M. Sudarsky, U. Katzenelenbogen &  J. Kissin (eds), Lithuania [Lite, in Yiddish]. Kultur gezelshaft fun litvishe yidn: New York 1951.

Ernst Klee, Willi Dressen & Volker Riess (eds), ‘”Each time a victim was beaten to death they started to clap”. Pogroms in Kaunas and elsewhere in Lithuania’ = pp 23-58 in their ‘The Good Old Days’. The Holocaust as Seen by its Perpetrators and Bystanders. Foreword by Hugh Trevor-Roper [Oxford University]. Free Press (Macmillan): New York 1991.  Order here.  [German original Fischer Verlag 1988]

Dov Levin, ‘World War II, the Holocaust and the Jewish Survivors’ = pp 187-247 in his The Litvaks. A Short History of the Jews in Lithuania. Yad Vashem: Jerusalem 2000.  Order here.

Dov Levin (ed), Pinkas Hakehillot. Encyclopedia of Jewish Communities from their Foundation till after the Holocaust [in Hebrew]. Assistant editor: Josef Rosin. Yad Vashem: Jerusalem 1996.

Joseph Levinson (ed), The Shoah (Holocaust) in Lithuania. Vilna Gaon Jewish State Museum: Vilnius 2006 [translations of leaflets of the Lithuanian Activist Front (LAF) produced before the Lithuanian Holocaust on pp 163-169].  Order here.

Joseph A. Melamed, Lithuania. A Jewish Graveyard [in Hebrew]. Association of Lithuanian Jews: Tel Aviv 1997.

Ephraim Oshry, The Annihilation of Lithuanian Jewry. Judaica Press: New York 1995. Order here.  [original Yiddish edition: Khurbn Lite, NY 1951]

Joshua Rubenstein and Ilya Altman (eds), ‘Lithuania’ = pp 277-315 in their The Unknown Black Book. The Holocaust in the German-Occupied Soviet Territories. Indiana University Press: Bloomington & Indianapolis 2008.  Order here.

Kazimierz Sakowicz, Ponary Diary 1941-1943.  A Bystander’s Account of a Mass Murder. Edited by Yitzhak Arad. Preface by Rachel Margolis [rediscoverer of the manuscript and publisher of the original Polish edition of 1999].  Yale University Press: New Haven & London 2005.  Order hereElectronic edition.

Lyn Smith, Remembering: Voices of the Holocaust. Carroll & Graf: New York [memoir by Juozas Aleksynas, member of the 12th & 13th Lithuanian police battalion, on pp 96-98].  Order here.

Karen Sutton, The Massacre of the Jews of Lithuania. Lithuanian Collaboration in the Final Solution 1941-1944. Gefen Publishing House: Jerusalem & New York 2008.  Order here.

Abraham Tory, Surviving the Holocaust. The Kovno Ghetto Diary. Edited with an introduction by Martin Gilbert. Textual and historical notes by Dina Porat. Harvard University Press: Cambridge, Mass 1990.  Order here.


Yad Vashem archives
List of sources (by JewishGen Litvak SIG)
Yizkor books online (New York Public Library)
Yizkor books translated, online (JewishGen)
The Jaeger Report (1941)
Lists of major massacres; II
‘Lithuanian shtetls’ section of Jewish Web Index
‘All Lithuania’ JewishGen database

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